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O Chm 1

Organic Chemistry Chaper 1-10

How is hybridization determined? Number of groups bonded to the Carbon; 4-sp3,3-sp2, 2-sp
What is the pKa of H-Cl -7
What are Lewis acids and bases? Lewis bases donate electrons, Lewis acids accept electrons
How is the pKa related to the strength of the acid? The smaller the number the stronger the acid.
What is the pKa of CH3COO-H? 4.8
What is the pKa of HO-H? 15.7
What is the pKa of CH3CH2O-H? 16
What is the pKa of an ethyne? 25 (triple carbon bond)
What is the pKa of H2 bond? 35
What is the pKa of H2N-H? 38
What is the pka of ethene? 44
What is the pka of methane? 50
What does pKa favor? the weaker acid, larger pKa
How does the periodic table effect acid strength? It increases further to the right and down the table.
Name two things that increases the acidity of a molecule. Electron-withdrawing groups in A, and resonance structures of A-
How does hybridization effect acidity? the more hybrid the less acidic; sp3<sp2<sp
What is a electrophile? electron acceptor, Lewis acid
What is a nucelophile? electron donor, Lewis base, can be a pi bond
What is a triple bond functional group called? Alkyne
What is an alkyl halide? R-X (X=F,Cl,Br,I)
What is an Ether? R-O-R
What is an Amine? R-NH2
What is a Thiol? R-SH
What is a Sulfide? R-S-R
What is a carbonyl group? a carbon double bonded to an oxygen
What is an aldehyde? a carbonyl bonded to an R group and a Hydrogen
What is a Ketone? a carbonyl bonded to two R groups
What is a Carboxylic acid? a carbonyl bonded to an R group and a hydroxide group
What is an Ester? A carbonyl bonded to an R group and a OR group
What is an Amide? A carbonyl bonded to an R group and a NH2 or NHR or NR2
What is an Acid Chloride? A carbonyl bonded to an R group and a chlorine atom
What is a an enantiomer? A mirror image of a chiral molecule.
What is a diastereometer? A nonmirror image of a chiral molecule.
What is a meso compound? An achiral compound that has a plane of symmetry
What is a homolysis reaction? A reaction with a radical intermediate
What is a heterolysis reaction? a reaction with an ionic intermediate
What subsutbituion reaction causes inversion? SN2
What type of substrate increases the speed of a SN2 reaction? methyl>1 degree> 2nd degree> 3rd degree
What is the difference between a SN1 and a SN2 reaction? SN1 has a ionic intermediate and SN2 is an attack
What is the leaving ability of Cl, I, Br, F? F>Cl>Br>I
What is the pKa of R-Cl? -7
What is the pKa of R-Br -9
What is the pKa of R-I -10
What is the pKa of R-OH2+ -4.7
What is the Zaitsev Rule? The major product in a beta elimination has a more substituted double bond.
What are the rules for E2 elimination reactions ? 3rd dg halides always go E2, never SN2, 2nd dg halides require a bulky base to prevent SN2, 3rd dg halides with a slim base gives the Zaitsev product, 3rd dg halides w/ a bulky base gives the anit-zaisev product for steric reasions
Name three common bulky bases diisopropylamine, t-butoxide, dimethylpyridine
What is Markovnikov's rule? the addition of HX to an unsymmetrical alkene, the H atom adds to the less substituted carbon atom
Created by: JadeTW