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# IB States of Matter

Solid state fixed shape and volume; particles held together by intermolecular forces in a fixed position; particles can vibrate about a fixed point but do not have translational velocity
liquid state fixed volume; takes shape of container; particles held closely together by intermolecular forces; particles have translational velocity so diffusion can occur
gaseous state widely spaced particles that completely fill container; pressure of gas due to particles colliding with walls of container; intermolecular forces negligible; volume occupied by molecules negligible compared with total volume of gas; diffusion can occur
absolute temperature proportional to its average kinetic energy (.5 mass) x (velocity squared)
melting solid particles increase in temp as kinetic energy increases due to greater vibration of particles; when vibration is sufficient to overcome intermolecular forces holding the lattice together the solid melts. temp doesn't increase during melting
boiling liquid particles move faster than solid; some move faster than others and escape from surface of liquid to form a vapour; when pressure of the vapour is equal to pressure above liquid, the liquid boils. temp remains same during boiling
Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution shows the distribution of kinetic energies.
Why does a volatile liquid feel cold as it evaporates? When a liquid evaporates it is the faster moving particles that escape so the average kinetic energy of the remaining particles is lower.
Ideal gas equation PV=nRT; P=pressure; V=volume; n=number of moles; R=gas constant; T=temperature (K)
Real gases have some attractive forces between particles; particles occupy some space. Real gases behave like an ideal gas at high temp and low pressure.
Created by: redhousefarms