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IB Bonding

Ionic bond electrons transferred from one atom to another to form ions with complete outer shells of electrons. High melting pt.
Polyatomic ions charge is delocalized over whole ion
Covalent bonding sharing of one or more pairs of electrons so that each atom in the molecule achieves a stable outer shell of electrons
Single covalent bond sharing of one pair of electrons. sigma bond. longest and weakest covalent bond.
Double covalent bond sharing of two paris of electrons. sigma and pi bond. moderate covalent bond length and strength
triple covalent bond sharing of three pairs of electrons. sigma and two pi bonds. shortest and strongest covalent bond.
co-ordinate covalent bond electrons in the shared pair originate from the same atom
Polar bonds when one atom is more electronegative than another resulting in slightly + and - atoms
VSPER theory (valence shell electron pair repulsion) pairs of electrons arrange themselves around the central atom so that they are as far apart from each other as possible. greater repulsion between non-bonded pairs than between bonded pairs.
linear 180
trigonal planar 120
tetrahedral 109.5
trigonal bipyramidal 90, 120
octahedral 90
how to work out the actual shape calculate the number of pairs of electrons around central atom, work out how many bonding pairs/non-bonding pairs
molecular polarity depends on relative electronegativities of the atoms and on the shape
Van der Waals forces electrons unevenly spread at any one moment that produces temporary instantaneous dipoles that induce another dipole in a neighboring particle. Increase with increasing mass.
intermolecular forces forces of attraction between molecules
dipole-dipole forces polar molecules are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces. stronger than Van der Waals
hydrogen bonding occurs when H is bonded directly to a small, highly electronegative element like F, O, N, resulting in a very strong dipole-dipole force.
metallic bonding valence electrons in metals become detached from the atoms so that metals consist of a close packed lattice of positive ions in a sea of delocalized electrons.
Melting and Boiling Points indicates strength of intermolecular forces. BP is when the attractive forces are completely broken; MP is when the crystal solid structure is broken and some intermolecular forces remain
solubility "like dissolves like". Polar dissolves in polar, non-polar in non-polar. The longer an organic molecule, the less soluble it is in water.
Conductivity substance must possess electrons or ions that are free to move. Metals and molten ionic salts conduct electricity.
sigma bond formed when two atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap "head-on".
pi bond formed when two p orbitals overlap "sideways-on". Made of two regions of electron density
sp3 hybridization 4 sp orbitals, 4 single bonds. tetrahedryl shape
sp2 hybridization 3 sp orbitals, 1 p orbital. 3 single bonds; 2 single bonds, 1 double bond. trigonal planar shape
sp hybridization 2 sp orbitals, 2 p orbitals. 2 single bonds; 2 double bonds; 1 single 1 triple bond. linear shape
resonance structure when it is possible to write more than one correct structure with regard to bonds.
delocalization of electrons can occur whenever alternate double and single bonds occur between carbon atoms.
diamond sp3 hybridized.
graphite sp2 hybridized. delocalized electrons-conduct electricity.
Created by: redhousefarms