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IB Periodicity

Atomic radius increases going down a group because of adding energy levels; decreases going left to right across a period because of adding protons while keeping electrons in same principle energy level.
Ionic radius cation radius is smaller than atomic radius because they contain fewer electrons than protons; anion radius is larger than atomic radius because they contain more electrons than protons.
cation positive ion
anion negative ion
melting points depend on both structure of the element and type of intermolecular forces
electronegativity relative measure of the attraction that an atom has for a shared pair of electrons when it is covalently bonded to another atom. As size of atom decreases, electronegativity increases.
alkali metal properties reactive, good reducing agents. Reactivity increases down the group as the outer electron is in successively higher energy levels and less energy is needed to remove it.
halogens good oxidizing agents, reactivity decreases going down the group as the outer shell is increasingly at higher energy levels and further from the nucleus, decreasing the attraction for another electron.
reactions between halogens Cl is a stronger oxidizing agent than Br so it can remove the electron from Br ions in solution to form Cl ions and Br2. Both Cl and Br can oxidize I ions to form Iodine.
test for halide ions the presence of halide ions in solution can be detected by adding silver nitrate solution. the silver ions react w/ the halide ions to form a precipitate of silver halide that can then be distinguished by their color. AgCl-white; AgBr-cream; AgI-yellow
metal oxides basic. high melting pt with period 3 metals. conduct electricity when molten
non-metal oxides acidic. low melting pt with period 3 non-metals
aluminum oxide amphoteric, can act as a base or an acid
silicon dioxide weak acid, does not react w/ water
period 3 metal chlorides conduct electricity when molten. high melting pt. neutral or weakly acidic
period 3 non-metal chlorides don't conduct electricity in molten state. low melting pt. acidic
transition element an element that possesses an incomplete d sub-level in one or more of its oxidation states. Lose 4s electrons first, then 3d electrons.
ligands neutral molecules or anions which contain a non-bonding pair of electrons that can form co-ordinate covalent bonds with the metal ion to form complex ions. ex. water
co-ordination number the number of lone pairs bonded to the metal ion.
transition metal catalysts because they can exist in a variety of oxidation states, transition metals make good catalysts. Fe in Haber process; Vanadium oxide in Contact process
Created by: redhousefarms