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IB Atomic Theory

Proton mass of 1, charge +1, in nucleus
Neutron mass of 1, charge 0, in nucleus
Electron mass of 0, charge -1, outside nucleus in orbitals
Mass number number of protons and neutrons in nucleus, written in upper left in shorthand notation
atomic number number of protons in nucleus; written in lower left of shorthand notation
charge written in upper right of shorthand notation
isotope atoms of the same element which contain different numbers of neutrons. mass is different so physical properties like density and boiling pt are different
mass spectrometer used to determine relative atomic mass. vaporized sample injected into it and ionized and deflected by magnetic field. Amount of deflection depends on mass and charge of ion, deflection is measured and recorded to determine relative amounts of ions.
Mass spectrometer calculations relative atomic mass can be calculated the same way it is when given percent abundance of isotopes.
atomic emission spectra the energy emitted by atom electrons when they drop from an excited state to a lower state. This energy corresponds to a particular wavelength.
continuous spectrum created by white light
line spectrum contains emissions at particular wavelengths. Used to identify elements.
first ionization energy the energy required to remove one electron from an atom in it's gaseous state. kJ/mol
electron arrangement principle energy levels and suborbitals: s, p, d, f
why do successive ionization energies increase? as more electrons are removed, the pull of the protons holds the remaining electrons more tightly so increasingly more energy is required to remove them.
orbitals contains a max of two electrons with opposite spins.
aufbau principle the orbitals with the lowest energy are filled first.
Hund's rule orbitals within the same sub-shell are filled singly first
Created by: redhousefarms