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Chemistry Beginner Level

Matter Anything that takes up Space
Not Matter Energy, Sound, Emotions, Light, Radiation, Time.
Element Pure substances made of atoms only that substance.
Atom Smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of the element.
Compound More than one element bond together, always has a definite composition by weight, some evidence of a chemical action is present, original parts lose their identity and can only be separated by chemical means
Mixture Separate substances, parts may be present in any proportion, there is no evidence of any chemical action taking place,they do not lose their identity can be separated by chemical means.
Homogenous Mixture Hard to see or separate parts. Has a variable composition
Heterogenous Mixture Easy to see and easy to separate parts. Has a variable composition.
Composition Definite Composition The action of putting things together. A very specific compound.
Solution A homogenous mixture of two or more substances, uniformly mixed through-out a single phase.
Solvent The substance that does the dissolving.
Solute The substance that is dissolved.
Suspension A heterogenous mixture that seperates into layers over time.
Endothermic Heat coming in.
Exothermic Heat going out.
Isotope Change in the number of neutrons.
Democritus Thought the atom was like a stone that could be cut till no more.
Dalton Thought the atom was like a pellet or billiard ball that combines to form compounds.
Thomson Thought the atom was like a cookie and the chips are the electrons.
Rutherford Discovered the nucleus where positive charges were and electrons swirled around the nucleus.
Bohr Thought the atom was like a solar system where electrons exist in energy levels around the nucleus and electrons jump up and down.
Schrodinger Thought the atom was like a cloud where particles are like waves and that you can't pinpoint where they are.
Proton Has a positive charge, has mass, lives in the nucleus.
Neutrons Has no charge, has mass, lives in the nucleus.
Electrons Negatively charged particles that orbit the the nucleus. It's symbol looks lie e-, they are in various energy levels, 1/1836 of a proton, and they don't affect the mass.
Atomic Number Number of protons in an atom.
Atomic Mass Number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
Solid Has a definite shape and a definite volume ( can't compress into a jar)
Liquid No definite shape ( takes form of the jar), no definite volume ( can't compress into a jar)
Gas No definite shape( takes form of container), no definite volume ( can compress)
Physical Properties Can be observed without changing a substance into another substance. Changes of state occur when heat energy is released or absorbed.
Sublimation Solid to gas.
Deposition Gas to solid.
Melting Solid to liquid.
Freezing Liquid to solid.
Evaporation Liquid to gas
Condensation Gas to liquid.
Chemical Properties Can be observed when matter undergoes a change in chemical composition.
Elements in the Atmosphere 78.3% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen.
Elements in the Human Body 6.3% Hydrogen, 25.5% Oxygen, 9.5% carbon, 1.4% Nitrogen.
Radioactivity An element can transform/decay or breakdown (because it's unstable) into a different isotope or to an entirely different element.
Radiation Released energy and matter. It emits one or more particles or electromagnetic energy, it does this because it's neutrons in the nucleus is too big.
Alpha Decay Fishy looking symbol. Alpha particles( 2 neutrons and 2 protons ) Similar to He without electrons. Positively charged particles. Massive. Passes through paper. Picks up electrons or ionize matter as they pass through.
Beta Decay Slanted B looking symbol. (electrons) Has a negative charge. Neutrons decay to form a proton and an electron, which is ejected at high speed. Ionize Matter. Stopped with 3 mm of Al or 10 mm of wood.
Gamma Decay Curvy Y looking symbol. Rays of electromagnetic energy. No charge. (Not Matter) Photons Ionize matter. Stopped with 60 mm of Al, 7 m of Pb or thick concrete.
Fission Splitting the atom.
Fusion Joining of the atom.
Half Life Time it takes for half of the sample to decay.
Created by: Skyferris