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AP Unit 4 Terms

AP World Unit 4 Terms and IDs

Aztec Empire Major state that developed in what is now Mexico in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; dominated by the seminomadic Mexica, who had migrated into the region from northern Mexico.
Benin Territorial state that emerged by the fifteenth century in the region that is now southern Nigeria; ruled by a warrior king who consolidated his state through widespread conquest. (pron. be-NEEN)
“chosen women” Among the Incas, girls who were removed from their homes at a young age, trained in Inca ideology, and set to producing corn beer and textiles; they later were given as wives to distinguished men or sent to serve as priestesses.
Columbus, Christopher Genoese mariner (1451–1506) commissioned by Spain to search for a new trading route to Asia; in 1492 he found America instead.
Constantinople, seizure of (1453) Constantinople, the capital and almost the only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the army of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II “the Conqueror” in 1453, an event that marked the end of Christian Byzantium.
“firestick farming” A manipulation of their environment by the Paleolithic peoples of Australia that involved controlled burns to clear underbrush.
Fulbe West Africa’s largest pastoral society, whose members gradually adopted Islam and took on a religious leadership role that led to the creation of a number of new states. (pron. FULL-bay)
Gama,Vasco da Portuguese explorer (ca. 1460–1524) whose 1497–1498 voyage was the first European venture to reach India by circling the tip of South Africa. (pron.VAS-coe dah GAHM-ah)
Hundred Years’ War Major conflict between France and England (1337–1453) over rival claims to territory in France; the two states’ need to finance the war helped encourage their administrative development.
Igbo People whose lands were east of the Niger River in what is now southern Nigeria in West Africa; they built a complex society that rejected kingship and centralized statehood and relied on other institutions to provide social coherence. (pron. EE-boh)
Inca Empire The Western Hemisphere’s largest imperial state in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries; built by a relatively small community of Quechua-speaking people (the Inca), contained perhaps 10 million subjects.
Iroquois League of Five Nations Confederation of five Iroquois peoples in what is now New York State; the loose alliance was based on the Great Law of Peace, an agreement to settle disputes peacefully through a council of clan leaders. (pron. IR-oh-kwoy)
Malacca Muslim port city that came to prominence on the waterway between Sumatra and Malaya in the fifteenth century C.E.; it was the springboard for the spread of a syncretic form of Islam throughout the region. (pron. mah-LAH-kah)
Mexica Seminomadic people of northern Mexico who by 1325 had established themselves on a small island in Lake Texcoco, where they built their capital city, Tenochtitlán; the Mexica were the central architects of the Aztec Empire. (pron. meh-SHE-ca)
Ming dynasty Chinese dynasty (1368–1644) that succeeded the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols; noted for its return to traditional Chinese ways and restoration of the land after the destructiveness of the Mongols.
Mughal Empire One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by an Islamized Turkic group that invaded India in 1526; the Mughals’ rule was noted for their efforts to create partnerships between Hindus and Muslims. (pron. MOO-guhl)
Ottoman Empire Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa.
Paleolithic persistence The continuance of gathering and hunting societies in substantial areas of the world despite millennia of agricultural advance.
pochteca Professional merchants in the Aztec Empire whose wealth often elevated them to elite status. (pron. poch-TAY-kah)
Renaissance, European A “rebirth” of classical learning that is most often associated with the cultural blossoming of Italy in the period 1350–1500 and that included not just a rediscovery of Greek learning as well as growing secularism in society.
Safavid Empire Major Turkic empire of Persia founded in the early sixteenth century, notable for it efforts to convert its populace to Shia Islam. (pron. SAH-fah-vid)
Songhay Empire Major Islamic state of West Africa that formed in the second half of the fifteenth century. (pron. song-GAH-ee)
Tenochtitlán The metropolitan capital of the Aztec Empire, with a population of 150,000–200,000 people. (pron. the-noch-TIT-lan)
Timbuktu Great city of West Africa, noted in the fourteenth–sixteenth centuries as a center of Islamic scholarship. (pron. tim-buk-TOO)
Timur Turkic warrior (1336–1405), also known as Tamerlane, whose efforts to restore the Mongol Empire devastated much of Persia, Russia, and India. (pron. tem-EER)
Triple Alliance 1428 agreement between the Mexica and two other nearby city-states that launched the Aztec Empire.
Yongle Chinese emperor (r. 1402–1422) during the Ming dynasty who was a key figure in the restoration of China to greatness and who commissioned an enormous fleet to spread awareness of Chinese superiority to much of Asia and eastern Africa. (pron. yoong-LAW)
Zheng He Great Chinese admiral (1371–1433) who commanded a fleet of more than 300 ships in a series of voyages of contact and exploration that began in 1405. (pron. jung huh)
Akbar The most famous emperor of India’s Mughal Empire (r. 1556–1605); his policies are noted for their efforts at religious tolerance and inclusion. (pron. AHK-bar)
Aurangzeb Mughal emperor (r. 1658–1707) who reversed his predecessors’ policies of religious tolerance and attempted to impose Islamic supremacy. (pron. ow-rang-ZEB)
Columbian exchange The massive transatlantic interaction and exchange between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia that began in the period of European exploration and colonization.
conquistadores Spanish conquerors of the Native American lands, most notably the Aztec and Inca empires. (pron. kon-KEY-stuh-dor-ays)
Constantinople, 1453 Constantinople, the capital and almost the only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the army of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II “the Conqueror” in 1453, an event that marked the end of Christian Byzantium.
creoles Spaniards born in the Americas.
devshirme The tribute of boy children that the Ottoman Turks levied from their Christian subjects in the Balkans; the Ottomans raised the boys for service in the civil administration or in the elite Janissary infantry corps. (pron. dev-sheer-MEH)
fixed winds The prevailing winds of the Atlantic, which blow steadily in the same direction; an understanding of these winds made European exploration and colonization of the Americas possible.
“great dying,” the Term used to describe the devastating demographic impact of European-borne epidemic diseases on the Americas.
jizya Special tax levied on non-Muslims in Islamic states; the Mughal Empire was notable for abolishing the jizya for a time. (pron. JIZ-yah)
mercantilism An economic theory that argues that governments best serve their states’ economic interests by encouraging exports and accumulating bullion.
mestizo Literally, “mixed”; a term used to describe the mixed-race population of Spanish colonial societies in the Americas. (pron. mess-TEE-zoh)
Mughal Empire One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by Muslim Turks who invaded India in 1526; their rule was noted for efforts to create partnerships between Hindus and Muslims. (pron. MOO-guhl)
mulattoes Term commonly used for people of mixed African and European blood.
Ottoman Empire Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa.
peninsulares In the Spanish colonies of Latin America, the term used to refer to people who had been born in Spain; they claimed superiority over Spaniards born in the Americas. (pron. pen-in-soo-LAHR-es)
plantation complex Agricultural system based on African slavery that was used in Brazil, the Caribbean, and the southern colonies of North America.
Qing dynasty Ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912; the Qing rulers were originally from Manchuria, which had conquered China. (pron. ching)
settler colonies Colonies in which the colonizing people settled in large numbers, rather than simply spending relatively small numbers to exploit the region; particularly noteworthy in the case of the British colonies in North America.
Siberia Russia’s great frontier region, a vast territory of what is now central and eastern Russia, most of it unsuited to agriculture but rich in mineral resources and fur-bearing animals.
African diaspora Name given to the spread of African peoples across the Atlantic via the slave trade.
Banda Islands Infamous case of the Dutch forcibly taking control of the spice trade; nearly the entire population of these nutmeg-producing islands was killed or enslaved and then replaced with Dutch planters. (pron. BAHN-dah)
Benin West African kingdom (in what is now Nigeria) whose strong kings sharply limited engagement with the slave trade. (pron. be-NEEN)
British/Dutch East India companies Private trading companies chartered by the governments of England and the Netherlands around 1600; they were given monopolies on Indian Ocean trade, including the right to make war and to rule conquered peoples.
Dahomey West African kingdom that became strong through its rulers’ exploitation of the slave trade. (pron. dah-HOH-mee)
daimyo Feudal lords of Japan who ruled with virtual independence thanks to their bands of samurai warriors. (pron. DIME-yoh)
Hurons Native American people of northeastern North America who were heavily involved in the fur trade. (pron. HYOOR-ons)
Indian Ocean commercial network The massive, interconnected web of commerce in premodern times between the lands that bordered on the Indian Ocean (including East Africa, India, and Southeast Asia); the network was badly disrupted by Portuguese intrusion beginning around 1500.
Little Ice Age A period of cooling temperatures and harsh winters that lasted for much of the early modern era.Magellan, Ferdinand
Manila Capital of the Spanish Philippines and a major multicultural trade city that already had a population of more than 40,000 by 1600.
Middle Passage Name commonly given to the journey across the Atlantic undertaken by African slaves being shipped to the Americas.
piece of eight Standard Spanish coin that became a medium of exchange in North America, Europe, India, Russia, and West Africa as well as in the Spanish Empire; so called because it was worth 8 reales.
Potosí City that developed high in the Andes (in present-day Bolivia) at the site of the world’s largest silver mine and that became the largest city in the Americas, with a population of some 160,000 in the 1570s. (pron. poh-toh-SEE)
samurai The warrior elite of medieval Japan. (pron. SAH-moo-rie)
shogun In Japan, a supreme military commander. (pron. SHOW-gun)
“silver drain” Term used to describe the siphoning of money from Europe to pay for the luxury products of the East, eventually, the bulk of the world’s silver supply made its way to China.
“soft gold” Nickname used in the early modern period for animal furs, highly valued for their warmth and as symbols of elite status; in several regions, the fur trade generated massive wealth for those engaged in it.
Spanish Philippines An archipelago of Pacific islands colonized by Spain in a relatively bloodless process that extended for the century or so after 1565, a process accompanied by a major effort at evangelization.
Tokugawa shogunate Military rulers of Japan who successfully unified Japan politically by the early seventeenth century and established a “closed door” policy toward European encroachments. (pron. toekoo- GOW-ah SHOW-gun-at)
trading post empire Form of imperial dominance based on control of trade rather than on control of subject peoples.
bhakti Hindu devotional movement that flourished in the early modern era, emphasizing music, dance, poetry, and rituals as means by which to achieve direct union with the divine. (pron. BAHK-tee)
Catholic Counter-Reformation An internal reform of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century; Catholic leaders clarified doctrine, corrected abuses and corruption, and put a new emphasis on education and accountability.
Condorcet and the idea of progress The Marquis de Condorcet (1743–1794) was a French philosopher and political scientist who argued that human affairs were moving into an era of near-infinite improvability, with slavery, racism, tyranny.
Copernicus, Nicolaus Polish mathematician and astronomer (1473–1543) who was the first to argue for the existence of a heliocentric cosmos.
Council of Trent The main instrument of the Catholic Counter-Reformation (1545–1563), at which the Catholic Church clarified doctrine and corrected abuses.
Darwin, Charles Highly influential English biologist (1809–1882) whose theory of natural selection continues to be seen by many as a threat to revealed religious truth.
deism Belief in a divine being who created the cosmos but who does not intervene directly in human affairs.
Edict of Nantes 1598 edict issued by French king Henry IV that granted considerable religious toleration to French Protestants and ended the French Wars of Religion. (pron. nahnt)
European Enlightenment European intellectual movement of the eighteenth century that applied the lessons of the Scientific Revolution to human affairs and was noted for its commitment to open-mindedness and inquiry and the belief that knowledge could transform human society.
Freud, Sigmund Austrian doctor and the father of modern psychoanalysis (1856–1939); his theories about the operation of the human mind and emotions remain influential today.
Galilei, Galileo Italian astronomer (1564–1642) who further developed the ideas of Copernicus and whose work was eventually suppressed by the Catholic Church.
huacas Local gods of the Andes. (pron. HWA-kaws)
Huguenots The Protestant minority in France. (pron. HUGH-ghe-noes)
Jesuits in China Series of Jesuit missionaries in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who, inspired by the work of Matteo Ricci, made extraordinary efforts to understand and become a part of Chinese culture in their efforts to convert the Chinese elite,
kaozheng Literally, “research based on evidence”; Chinese intellectual movement whose practitioners emphasized the importance of evidence and analysis, applied especially to historical documents. (pron. kow-jung)
Luther, Martin German priest and theologian (1483–1546) who inaugurated the Protestant Reformation movement in Europe.
Marx, Karl German philosopher (1818–1883) whose view of human history as a class struggle formed the basis of socialism.
Mirabai One of India’s most beloved bhakti poets (1498–1547), she helped break down the barriers of caste and tradition. (pron. MIR-ah-bye)
Nanak, Guru The founder of Sikhism (1469–1539). (pron. NAH-nahk)
Newton, Isaac English natural scientist (1643–1727) whose formulation of the laws of motion and mechanics is regarded as the culmination of the Scientific Revolution.
Ninety-five Theses List of ninety-five debating points about the abuses of the Church, posted by Martin Luther on the door of a church in Wittenberg in 1517; the Church’s strong reaction eventually drove Luther to separate from Catholic Christianity.
Protestant Reformation Massive schism within Christianity that had its formal beginning in 1517 with the German priest Martin Luther; the movement was radically innovative in its challenge to Church authority and its endorsement of salvation “by faith alone.”
Ricci, Matteo The most famous Jesuit missionary in China in the early modern period; active in China from 1582 to 1610. (pron. maht-TAY-oh REE-chee)
Scientific Revolution Great European intellectual and cultural transformation that was based on the principles of the scientific method.
Sikhism Religious tradition of northern India founded by Guru Nanak ca. 1500; combines elements of Hinduism and Islam and proclaims the brotherhood of all humans and the equality of men and women. (pron. SEEK-ism)
Society of Jesus Also called “Jesuits,” this Catholic religious society was founded to encourage the renewal of Catholicism through education and preaching; it soon became a leading Catholic missionary order beyond the borders of Europe.
Taki Onqoy Literally, “dancing sickness”; a religious revival movement in central Peru in the 1560s whose members preached the imminent destruction of Christianity and of the Europeans in favor of a renewed Andean golden age. (pron. TAH-kee OHN-koy)
Thirty Years’ War Highly destructive war (1618–1648) that eventually included most of Europe; fought for the most part between Protestants and Catholics, the conflict ended with the Peace of Westphalia (1648).
Voltaire Pen name of the French philosopher François-Marie Arouet (1694–1778), whose work is often taken as a model of Enlightenment questioning of traditional values and attitudes; noted for his deism and his criticism of traditional religion. (pron. vol-TARE)
Wahhabi Islam Major Islamic movement led by the Muslim theologian Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792) that advocated an austere lifestyle and strict adherence to the sharia (Islamic law). (pron. wah-HAB-ee)
Wang Yangmin Prominent Chinese philosopher (1472–1529) who argued that it was possible to achieve a virtuous life by introspection, without the extensive education of traditional Confucianism. (pron. wahng yahng-min)
Created by: rockcastle