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chem 11 Lesson 1

Chemistry 11 Lesson 1 Intro to Chemistry

What are the Scientific Notation Rules? If a numerical value is less than 1, a ‘0’ precedes the decimal point. Example: 0.134 NOT .134. Long numbers are separated by space in groups of 3 from either side of decimal point (no commas and not required with four-digit numbers). Ex:1 234.769 54
What are the Scientific Notation Steps? Step 1: To change a reg no. to scientific notation, move decimal place so 1 non-0mdigit appears to its left. 2: Drop all non-signif zeros. 3: x this no. by 10n ‘n’ = no of places decimal place has moved (n is + for moves to left and - for moves to right).
SI base units The International System of Units – the metric system.Symbol Unit Quantity s second time kg kilogram mass m metre length J joule energy, work W watts power L litre volume Pa Pascal pressure oC degree Celcius temperature mol mole amount o
What is Chemistry? the science that deals with the properties and reactions of materials. It is concerned with the identification, characterization, and transformations of matter, and with the energy changes accompanying these transformations.
What's the difference between Observations & Conclusions? Observations are made with the body's senses and are sometimes aided by the use of measuring instruments such as a balance or a thermometer. A conclusion is an inference or an interpretation of an observation.
What are Qualitative observations? descriptions or data collected by the body's sense: The vinegar tastes sour. The flame is bright white. The metal is easily scratched.
What are Quantitative observations? involve the recording of numerical data and requires the aid of a measuring device of some kind. The starting mass of the salt was 2.56 grams. The candle burned for 5 minutes. The temperature ended up at 29.4oC.
Scientific Notation a short-hand of writing numbers
examples of derived entities Volume (m3), speed (m/s) and moment of inertia (kg.m2)
What is Dimensional analysis? method for solv probs. Dimen analy units+ cancel of units in equations. To use units,determine u ans sh have. Org data to yield units. may be algebraic variables in cals + mult/div same way as no. Un in equat r cancel til rem units = expect units=ans prob
Density amount of matter present in a given volume of a substance (mass per unit volume –usually in g/mL or g/cm3).
Precision and accuracy Precision measures the agreement between results of repeated measurements and is usually controlled by the size of the scale of the measuring device. Accuracy, measures the agreement between a measurement and the accepted standard value.
Significant Digits Measurement of quantities vary continuously (length, mass, volume, temperature, etc.) subject to uncertainty. For mass recorded as 54.87 g understood "7" is an estimate. Significant digits are uncertain digits +1 uncertain/estimated dig in recorded mea
precision the degree of exactness to which the measurement of a quantity can be reproduced.
Adding & Subtracting answer must have the same number of decimal places as the least certain number used in the problem -- the "weak link" in the chain of figures. The process may require some rounding off. Rounding off may be necessary for non-fraction values too.
Created by: sarabarbot