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Physics Unit 10

QuestionAnswer
The nucleus of the atom consists of two particles, the proton and the ______________. neutron
The process by which a radioactive isotope loses protons or other materials from the nucleus is called ___________. decay
The particles composing the nucleus are called ___________. nucleons
The nucleus that exists BEFORE decay is called a ____________ nucleus. parent
The nucleus that exists AFTER decay is called a ____________ nucleus. daughter
An alpha particle has 2 each of ________________. protons and neutrons
The proton has _________ charge. positive
The neutron has ____________ charge. no
An electron with an antineutrino or a positron with a neutrino is called a _________ particle. beta
A wave of nucleus-produced photons is called ____________ radiation. gamma
A unit of measurement called the ____________ is 10^-15 m in length. femtometer
_____________ radiation can penetrate through several centimeters of lead. Gamma
___________ particles will pass through paper but can be stopped by a sheet of aluminum. Beta
_________ particles have the lowest penetrating power and can be stopped by a few sheets of paper. Alpha
The rate of decay of radioactive elements is expressed in terms of ___________. half-life
Atoms which have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called _______________. isotopes
In the nucleus, protons move _______________ each other. away from
____________ fill in the spaces between protons. Neutrons
The fundamental force that binds the nucleus is the ______________ force. strong nuclear
The fundamental force responsible for beta decay is the ____________ force. weak nuclear
The change of one element to a new element by alpha or beta decay is called _______________. transmutation
The forces acting on the nucleons force the ______________ into an irregular shape. nucleus
Atoms whose nuclear diameters exceed the range of the _______________ become unstable. strong force
The separation of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei is called ________________. fission
The combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavy nucleus is ____________. fusion
The distortion of a heavy nucleus after being bombarded by a neutron may be enough to overcome the __________ force and allow fission to occur. strong
The two most important ____________ materials are uranium-235 and plutonium-239. fissionable
A chain reaction is a ____________ fission reaction. sustained
Nuclei of tritium and deuterium combine to form ___________ and release a neutron. helium
In nuclear fusion, the fundamental force that must be overcome is the ______________ force. strong
Nuclear fusion must take place under __________ temperature and pressure conditions. high
Almost every particle exists as a member of a matter and ____________ pair. antimatter
Matter and antimatter cannot _____________ in the same vicinity. exist
By themselves, elementary particles have very ____________ lives. short
The theoretical building block of all particles having mass is the _______________. quark
Massless particles called ____________ bind quarks together. gluons
There are four basic groups of _____________________: baryons, gauge bosons, leptons, and mesons. elementary particles
Within just a few ____________ a chain reaction will involve all of the fissionable materials available. milliseconds
If a nuclear reaction takes place without moderating material, the reaction will _____________. explode
A massless particle produced by the quantum movement of an electron is called a(n) ___________. photon
The positive equivalent of an electron is called a(n) _______________. positron
A ______________ is a "baby" neutron that is part of a beta particle. neutrino
A(n) ____________ is an example of an antimatter particle that would be found in the nucleus of an atom of antihydrogen. antiproton
The experiments of Michelson and Morley showed that light ___________ affected by the ether. is not
In physics, the fourth dimension is ____________. time
Einstein's formula relating energy, mass, and the speed of light is _______________. E=mc2
One of the tenets of the special theory of relativity is that an observer sees a dilation of time and a contraction of ____________ in a moving object. space
__________________ helps to explain the workings of the very, very small. Quantum mechanics
______________ helps to explain the workings of the very, very large. Relativity
___________ formulas are useful in predicting the behaviors of objects within our solar system. Newtonian
In the presence of a gravitational field, light follows a ____________. geodesic
The principle that acceleration of a mass in an inertial frame is equal to gravitation is called ____________. equivalence
General relativity was Einstein's new concept of _____________. gravitation
Objects bend space in proportion to their ____________. mass
The "straightest" line in curved space is called a ___________. geodesic
The special theory of relativity held that space and time are relative and that the absolute in the universe is __________________. the speed of light in a vacuum
The first postulate for special relativity is that all of the laws of nature are ______________ in all inertial frames of reference. the same
The second postulate for special relativity is that __________________ is constant. the speed of light in a vacuum
T/F Light can be bent by gravity. T
T/F Newton demonstrated that time can be distorted by gravity. F
T/F In an inertial frame an observer is not aware of any movement. T
T/F Until the late 20th century, most scientists believed that light traveled through a medium called ether. F
T/F Michelson and Morley explained that the speed of light is a constant. F
The process by which a radioactive isotope loses protons or other materials from the nucleus is called ____________. decay
The particles composing the nucleus are called ____________. nucleons
The nucleus that exists before decay is called a ________________ nucleus. parent
The nucleus that exists after decay is called a _______________ nucleus. daughter
A(n) _____________ particle has 2 each of protons and neutrons. alpha
A(n) __________ particle has either an electron with an antineutrino or a positron with a neutrino. beta
______________ radiation is a wave of nucleus-produced photons. Gamma
The separation of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei is called _____________. fission
The combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavy nucleus is called __________. fusion
The two most important _______________ materials are 235U and 239P. fissionable
A __________ reaction is a sustained fission reaction. chain
A unit of measurement called the _______________ is 10^-15 m in length. femtometer
______________ radiation can penetrate through several centimeters of lead. Gamma
____________ particles will pass through paper but can be stopped by a sheet of aluminum. Beta
_____________ particles have the lowest penetrating power and can be stopped by a few sheets of paper. Alpha
The rate of decay of radioactive elements is expressed in terms of ______________. half-life
Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of _____________. neutrons
A massless particle produced by the quantum movement of an electron is called a _______________. photon
A neutrino is a "baby" neutron that is part of a(n) ___________ particle. beta
An example of an antimatter particle that would be found in the nucleus of an atom of antihydrogen is the ______________. antiproton
Einstein's formula that energy and mass are proportional is ___________. E=mc2
Special relativity states that all of the laws of nature are the same in all ___________ frames of reference. inertial
______________ can be bent by gravity. Light
Einstein demonstrated that time ____________ be distorted by gravity. can
In an inertial frame an observer ______________ aware of any movement. is not
T/F The fundamental force that binds the nucleus is gravitation. F/strong nuclear force
T/F The fundamental force controlling beta decay is the weak force. T
T/F The change of one element to a new element by alpha or beta decay is called transmutation. T
T/F Most particles do not exist as a member of a matter and antimatter pair. F/do
T/F The theoretical building block of all particles having mass is the gluon. F/quark
T/F There are four basic groups of elementary particles. T
T/F The experiments of Michelson and Morley showed that the speed of light is not affected by the ether. T
T/F In the presence of a gravitational field, light follows a geodesic. T
T/F Einstein's new concept of gravitation was outlined in his paper on special relativity. F/general
T/F The general theory of relativity held that space and time are relative and that the absolute in the universe is the speed of light. F/in a vacuum
T/F Objects bend space in proportion to their mass. T
T/F Newtonian formulas are useful in predicting the behaviors of objects in our solar system. T
T/F Quantum physics helps to explain the workings of the very, very small. T
T/F Relativity helps to explain the workings of the very, very large. T
Created by: jhincks