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Chapter 14

CHM 158

Spontaneous Process one that proceeds in a given direction with out any outside intervention
Non-Spontaneous Process Occurs only as long as energy continually added to system
Spontaneity Depends on the dispersion of energy is added to system
Second Law of Thermodynamics The total entropy of the universe increase in any spontaneous process
Entropy (S) a measure of distribution of energy in a system at a specific temperature
Quantized Values Motion of molecules
Different molecular states related to molecular motion are separated by specific energies
Microstate A unique distribution of particles among energy levels
3 Types of possible molecular motions 1) Translational 2) Rotational 3) Vibrational
Translational Movements through space O=O ---> or -->-->
Rotational Spinning motion around axis
Vibrational Movments of atoms towards or away from each other ->O=O<- <-O=O->
Boltzmann Equation S=(K)(lm)(W) S=Entropy K=Constant W=#of micro states
ICE Primarily Vibrational( Solid) -Less micro states -Less Entropy
Liquid Water Rotational,vibrational, and some translational (liquid) -More Micro-states -Higher Entropy
Water Vapor -Rotational,Vibrational,Translational (unrestricted)(gas) -Most Micro states -Highest Entropy
Isothermal Process Process that takes place at constant temperature ^S_sys=q_rev/T Entropy change eq
Reversible Process Process that can be run in reverse direction with no net heat flow into or out of system
Third Law of Thermodynamics Entropy of universe increases for a spontaneous process
Created by: osabdelr