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Chapter six science

Section 1,2 2013

Physical Property - A characteristic of a substance that can be observed without the substance changing into another substance. - Ex. Color, hardness, Texture, shine, and flexibility. Ice cube melting to water.
Chemical Property - A characteristic that shows how substances change into different substances. - Chemical properties can be used to classify substances. - Ex. Rusting, Tarnishing
Endothermic reaction - This is when energy is absorbed in a chemical reaction.
Exothermic reaction - This is when energy is released in a chemical reaction.
Reactant - The substances that you begin with in a reaction
Product - the substances you get from the reaction
Conservation of Mass - In a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products.
Coefficient - A coefficient is a number placed in front of a chemical formula that tells you how many atoms or molecules of a reactant or product take place in the equation. (1 is implied)
Synthesis - to synthesize means to put together - In chemistry, when two or more substance are put together to make a more complex substance, its called synthesis.
Decomposition - Decomposition breaks down compounds to simpler compounds
Replacement - when one element replaces another in a compound - or when two elements trade places
Activaiton energy - the minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
Changes in properties - Ways to detect chemical reactions. - Changes in properties emerge when new substances form. - Ex. Color changes, precipitates form (solids that form from solutions during a chemical reaction), gas bubbles or temperature change.
Surface Area - The part of a substance that comes in contact with the other reactant. - more surface area = faster reaction.
Temperature - Higher temperature = faster reaction - particles move faster, creating more energy to get to activation point. - particles bump into each other more increasing chances of a reaction.
Concentration - If you increase the concentration of the reactants, there are more particles to react-> greater chance of reaction - ex. Teaspoon of sugar in lemonade vs. tablespoon of sugar in lemonade
Catalysts - A catalyst is a material that lowers the activation energy, therefore increasing the speed of the reaction. - Catalysts are not reactants because they are not permanently changed by chemical reactions. - Enzymes are catalysts.
Inhibotors - inhibitors are used to slow down a chemical reaction. Most prevent reactants from coming together, or combine with a reactant permanently or temporarily. - (makes activation energy higher)
Increase reaction speed - To make a chemical reactions faster, you get more reactant particles together more often with more energy. - Chemists control rates of reactions with surface area, temperature, and concentration by using catalysts and inhibitors.
Decerase reaction speed - To make a chemical reaction slower, you get less reactant particles together less often with less energy. - You can also raise the activation energy
Combustion - COmbustion is the reaction of oxygen and a fuel
Fuel - A fuel is a material that releases anergy when it burns.
Fire triangle - Fuel, Oxygen and heat are the 3 things neede to start and maintain a fire
Controlling Fire - A sauce pan, baking soda, or water can put out a fire. - Ex. First water covers the fuel which keeps it from coming into contact with oxygen. Second, evaporation of the water uses a large amount of heat, causing the fire to cool.
3 most common sources of home fires - faulty electrical wiring, small heaters, and cooking.
Open system - A chemical reaction that allows for molecules to escape into their surroundings, and allows other molecules to come into the reaction. It is also a system that can not contain all the atoms. - Ex. A burning match
Closed system - A chemical reaction that contains all the atoms and molecules. Molecules can not escape or come in. - Ex. A pear decaying in a plastic bag.
Created by: Lou399