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Science P1 Topic 1

GCSE edexcel core science physics: visible light and the solar system

What model was used to show our solar system thousands of years ago? What did it explain and who came up with this idea? The geocentric model- which showed that the earth was in the centre of the solar system and all the stars, planets and moons moved in orbits around it. Ptolemy thought of this.
what is the current model used to show our solar system? What does it explain and who came up with this idea? The heliocentric model- which shows that the sun is in the centre of the solar system and the planets and moons move in orbits around it. Copernicus though of this.
How did Galileo's discovery help to prove Copernicus' model? He discovered one of Jupiter's moons orbiting it, showing that things with smaller masses orbit things with larger masses. Therefore, the earth must orbit the sun.
How do scientists use waves to find out more about the universe? - They can use telescopes and photography to view luminous objects - They can use different types of telescopes that detect micro and radio waves to analyse the non-luminous objects in space.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of observing the universe with the naked eye? ADVANTAGES: no danger, no cost DISADVANTAGES: can only be done at night, weather dependant, limited detail
What are the advantages and disadvantages of observing the universe with photography? ADVANTAGES: more detail, allows you to analyse the images later, can record the changes in an object without a person having to sit and watch it all DISADVANTAGES:
What are the advantages and disadvantages of observing the universe with telescopes? ADVANTAGES: much more detail, can be done in the day and at night DISADVANTAGES: expensive
What is refraction and when does it happen? Refraction is where light is bent at the interface between two different transparent media.
What is the normal? A line at ninety degrees to the interface of the media.
When light travels from glass into air, what will it do? It will bend away from the normal and speed up
When light travels from air to water, what will it do? It will bend towards the normal and slow down.
What is a lens? A transparent block that has been shaped so that its interface chanegs the direction of parallel light waves.
How does a refracting telescope work? Distant parallel light waves enter a converging lens, the objective lens. Refraction at the interface focuses the rays to a point (the focal point) where the image is created. The rays pass through the eyepiece lens which magnifies the image.
What is the focal length and how can this be measured? The focal length is the distance between the focal point and the lens. It can be measured by focusing the distant light rays through a lens and onto a piece of white paper. When the image on the paper becomes clear, you can measure the focal length.
Are waves reflected at boundaries between materials or not? Yes they are, which means that whenever light passes though a lens, some of it is reflected. This makes the image fainter.
How does a reflecting telescope work? Distant parallel light rays are focused by a primary, curved mirror. The rays are focused at the secondary mirror, which sends the image to the eyepiece lens, magnifying the image
What are the advantages of a reflecting telescope over a refracting telescope? * Image is clearer at the end because the light rays only have to pass through one lens. * The reflecting telescope can be smaller as it sends light back along the path it came * It can be made much bigger, as mirrors don't distort under weight
What do waves transfer: matter or energy? Energy
What are longitudinal waves and what are some examples? Waves where the particles move in the same direction as the direction of the wave. They have compression and rarefactions. Sound waves are longitudinal.
What are transverse waves and what are some examples? Waves where the particles move at a ninety degree angle to the direction of the wave.They have troughs and peaks. Electromagnetic waves are transverse.
Are seismic waves longitudinal or transverse? Both
What is the frequency of a wave? The number of waves passing a point each second, measured in Hertz (Hz)
What is the wavelength of a wave? The distance from one point on a wave to the same point on the next wave, measured in metres (m)
What is the amplitude of a wave? The maximum disturbance on a wave from its undistrubed position, measured in metres(m)
What are the two ways of working out wave speed? 1. Wave speed(m/s) = distance(m) / time(s) 2. Wave speed(m/s) = wavelength(m) x frequency(Hz)
Created by: 11043