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Properties, Reactions, Productions and Uses of Alcohols.

What three types of Alcohol are there? Primary (Alcohol attached to an End Carbon), Secondary (alcohol attached to a carbon with two other carbon groups) and Tertiary (OH group on a Carbon attached to 3 other carbons).
What makes a chain an Alcohol? The Hydroxide group (OH).
How do the Boiling and Melting points of Alcohols compare to Alkanes? They are usually slightly higher because the OH group can form Hydrogen Bonds with other molecules, increasing heat required to break these interactions.
What are the two ways in which Ethanol can be produced? It can be made from Crude Oil (Ethene produced by Cracking is then Hydrated to form Ethanol as water is added across the double bond). It can also be made by Fermentation.
Which of the two ways of making Ethanol industrially is more sustainable~? The Fermentation process is renewable as new plant material can be grown quickly.
Which process of making Ethanol industrially is more efficient and produces more pure Ethanol? The production from Crude oil tends to produce pure ethanol where Fermentation produces aqueous Ethanol solution.
How is Ethanol produced by Fermentation? Glucose (or other sugars) are fermented in an Anaerobic reaction with yeast (which provide Enzymes), this converts the Glucose to Ethanol. It must be Oxygen free, and at a temp of about 35C.
Define Biofuel: A fuel which is derived from an Organic, renewable source. Such as starch from plants.
Define Carbon Neutral Fuel: The amount of Carbon produced when the fuel is burnt is equal to the amount of Carbon taken up by the plant.
Why is Ethanol produced by Fermentation considered Carbon Neutral whilst Crude oil is not? By fermentation is produced from Sugars in Sugar Cane and crops which can be regrown annually, these plants take up carbon to grow (photosynthesis). Crude oil must be burnt and does not have any Carbon-In mechanisms.
Why is Ethanol production from Fermentation not 'completely' Carbon Neutral? Because there are carbon Cost involved in transportation and possibly in the heating of the reaction chamber etc.
Define Carbon Neutral: An activity which has no net Carbon emission into the atmosphere.
What are Primary Alcohols Oxidised to? First they are oxidised to Aldehydes and then they are oxidised to Carboxcylic Acids.
What is an Aldehyde? A hydrocarbon with the functional group R-CH=O at the end of the chain. They can be formed from Primary Alcohol Oxidation and have the suffix '-al'
What is a Carboxcylic Acid? A Hydrocarbon with the functional group R-COOH at the end. They can be formed from the further Oxidation of Aldehydes and double oxidation of Primary Alcohols and have the suffix '-oic Acid'.
What is a Keytone? A hydrocarbon with the functional group R-CO-R in the middle of a chain (C=O is involved). They can be formed from the Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols and have the suffix '-one' (pronounced "own").
How are Aldehydes formed? The oxidation of Primary Alcohols using an Oxidising Agent (Such as Potassium Dichromate or [O]) Heating gently with dilute acid.
How are Carboxcylic Acids formed? The complete Oxidation of a Primary Alcohol using concentrated Acid and excess Potassium Dichromate or [O]. Done at heat and allowing Reflux to occur (evaporated material condenses back in).
Give the Reaction of Ethanol to Ethanal: C2H5OH + [O] ---> CH3CHO + H2O (Under slight Heat with dilute Acid).
Give the reaction of Ethanol to Ethanoic Acid: C2H5OH + 2[O] ---> CH3COOH + H2O (under Heat, allowing reflux and Conc H2SO4).
Why are Tertiary Alcohols not easily Oxidised? Because there are no Alpha Hydrgens to be removed from the Alcohol. This is the same reason Keytones are not further oxidised.
What do Aldehydes and Keytones both have in common? They both have the Carbonyl group, which is C=O group.
Name two tests that can be performed to test for Aldehydes or Keytones: Tollens Reagent test and Benedict's Test.
Describe Tollens Reagent Test: Tollens Reagent contains colourless Silver Ions which will oxidise an Aldehyde (and not a Keytone) to Carboxcylic Acid. This reduces the Silver ions to Silver metal causing a Colourless solution to have Silver Mirror deposits.
Describe Benedict's Test: Benedicts solution contains Blue Copper (II) ions, which will oxidise Aldehyde (not Keytone) when warmed. The Copper ions reduce to Copper I Oxide, turning from blue to Red.
What reaction can change Alcohols into Alkenes? Elimination reactions (Dehydration) using Conc H2SO4 and Heat. H2O is produced.
What type of Isomerism can be shown by the products of an elimination reaction of an Alcohol. Alkenes are produced which show Geometric Isomerism. E-Z isomerism.
What are the conditions of an Elimination reaction of an Alcohol to produce Alkenes. It requires Conc H2SO4 (or Al2O3) and Heat.
Why is Alcohol elimination important for the environment? It can provide an alternate pathway to Alkenes, thus Polymers, without using oil based reactants and processes, such as Cracking of Crude oil and Fractional Distillation.
Created by: mjwilson1988



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