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Chemistry Review-1.1

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What is an acid? Tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates, turns blue litmus paper red, <7 on pH scale
What is a base? Tastes bitter, feels slippery, turns red litmus paper blue, >7 on pH scale
What is a Hydrogen ion (H+)? An atom of hydrogen that has lost its electron.
What is a Hydroxide iron (OH-)? A negatively charged ion.....Gained an electron
Element: Simplest pure substance. Can't be broken into other substances
Matter: Anything that has mass and volume
What is all matter composed of? 1 element or a combination of 2 or more elements
Compound Substance made of 2 or more elements chemically combined
Mixture 2 or more elements in the same place, but NOT chemically combined
Democritus Named the atom
Protons positively charged particles, located in the nucleus
Neutrons no electric charge, located in the nucleus
Electrons negatively charged particles, located in the electron cloud
Solid Definite volume and shape, particles close together
Liquid Definite volume, particles vibrate
Gas No definite volume or shape, particles move past each other easily
Density Mass Volume
Melting Solid-Liquid
Freezing Liquid-Solid
Condensation Gas-Liquid
Evaporation Liquid-Gas
Sublimation Solid-Gas
Synthesis A+B yields AB
Decomposition AB yields A+B
Single Replacement AB+C yields AC+B
Double Replacement AB+CD yields AC+BD
Homogeneous Solution Particles hard to tell apart
Heterogeneous Solution Particles easy to tell apart
Atom: Smallest particle of an element
Nucleus: Center of atom, where the mass is, protons and neutrons
Energy Level A region around the nucleus in which electrons of the same energy are likely to be found
Atomic # order of periodic table, amount of protons
Atomic Mass # of protons + # of neutrons
Valence Electrons electrons in the outermost energy level
Ion atom group of atoms that has an electric charge
Ionic Bond attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions....they form as a result of the attraction between positive and negative ions...lots of energy is needed to break the bond Chemical Formula
Covalent Bond 2 atoms share electrons
Polar Bond Covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally
Nonpolar Bond Covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally
Conservation of Mass In a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products
solvent solution component that determines the state of matter of the solution (present in greatest amount)
solute substance dissolved in solvent
molarity mol solute volume solution
1 ppm 1mg L
1ppb 1mu g L
1ppt 1nano g L
molarity varies with temperature if temp increases, then molarity decreases
molality mol solute mass solvent, not temp dependent
mole fraction xi is mol component i total mols of solution
mole percent mole fractionx100
ideal solution no net energy change and change in volume=0
nonideal solution volume is less than sum of volumes
ion-dipole forces attraction of water dipoles for cations and anions
miscible liquids that mix in all proportions
saturated when equilibrium between undissolved solute and solution, solute has attained its maximum value
solubility concentration of the solute
unsaturated any solution containing less solute than can be held at equilibrium
ionic compound solubility 95% of ionic compounds have solubilities that increase significantly w increasing temp
solubility curve graph of solubility as function of temperature
supersaturated if a solution can be cooled without crystallization occurring
Henry's law S=kPgas, increasing the pressure of a gas in contact w saturated solution increases the number of molecules per unit volume in gas
colligative properties properties that depend on # of solute particles present but not on the identity of solute
Raoult's law Psolv=xsolv*Pat temp solv, vapor pressure of the solvent above a solution is the product of the vapor pressure of solvent and the mole fraction of the solvent in solution
Raoult's law strictly followed only in an ideal solution. not limited to the solvent if a solution also contains volatile solutes
fractional distillation use constant pressure and boil a solution in n aparatus that does vaporizations and condenstations at a constant temp.
Kf molal freezing point depression constant and molal
Kb boiling point elevation constant
Semipermeable membranes sheets or films of amaterial containing a network of microscopic holes or pores through which small solvent molecues can pass, but larger solute molecules cannot
Osmosis net flow of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrance from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration
osmotic pressure pressure required to stop osmosis
pi osmotic pressure in atm
pi=MRT (blank)
isotonic solution hqving same osmotic pressure as body flluids
hypertonic Chemistry Having the higher osmotic pressure of two solutions.
hypotonic Chemistry Having the lower osmotic pressure of two fluids.
can't Hoff Factor (i) used to modify equations for colligative properties by accounting for the presence of ions in solution
heterogeneous mixture sand-water mix
colloids mixtures that lie between true solutions and suspensions
colloid dispersion in an appropriate medium of particles ranging in size from 1 nm to 1000 nm
tyndall effect properties of colloids are diff from true solutions and suspensions. sometimes appear milky cloudy and scater beams of light passing through them
coagulate precipitate high concentration of an electrolyte can cause this
electrodialysis process facilitated by the attractions of ions to an electrode having the opposite charge
Q: Typical Composition of Natural Gas is? A: Methane (CH4)70-90%
Q: CH4, Methane, makes up 70-90 % of natural gas. What 3 gases make up the next about 20% in varying amounts? A: Ethane, C2H6 - 0-20% Propane,C3H8 - 0-20% Butane, C4H10 - 0-20%
Q: Why do we use chlorine at PB? A: Chlorine is an oxidizing agent that distroys cell walls and nutrents in the water
Q: Where do we use chlorine at PB? A: Circulating water, Service Water, and a couple more. Get specifics.
Created by: jimsutton5



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