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Science C1 Topic 4

GCSE edexcel core science chemistry: metals

How are metals like gold found in the earth's crust? They are found naturally as elements as they are unreactive.
What is an ore? An ore is a rock that contains a meatl compound in e.g. bauxite
How can you extract unreactive metals? What is an example of a metal that this can be done with? By heating them with carbon- the carbon gets oxidised to form carbon dioxide and the metal compound gets reduced to leave the metal as an element e.g. iron
How can you extract more reactive metals? What is an example of a metal that this can be done with? By using electrolysis- but they have to be molten or as a solution e.g. aluminium
Iron oxide + carbon -> ? (extraction) carbon dioxide + iron
Aluminium oxide -> ? (extraction) aluminium+ oxygen
Is it easier or harder to extract a very reactive metal? Harder (and more expensive)
What is oxidation? The gain of oxygen/ when oxygen is added to a substance
What is reduction? The loss of oxygen / when oxygen is removed from a substance
What other process does oxidation lead to? Corrosion
Does a more reactive metal corrode more slowly or more quickly? Quickly
What is the recycling of metals? When metals are melted down and made into something new
What are some advantages of recycling metals? * Natural reserves of metals will last longer * It saves energy, as it requires less than the extraction of ores- making it cheaper * There is less pollution * Less waste metals in landfill sites * Reduces the need for mining, which causes noise pollu
What are some disadvantages of recycling metals? * It is expensive to collect, transport and sort the metals for recycling * Sometimes it can be more expensive to recycle metals
What is an advantage of steel and iron being recycled in particular? As they are magnetic, they can easily be separated from the other metals
What are some properties of metals? - Malleable - Good heat conductors - Good electrical conductors - Ductile - Usually solid at room temperature
What is a property and use of aluminium? It has a low density and is light- so is used to make aeroplanes, as the lighter the aeroplane is, the less fuel it will need to fly
What are some properties and uses of copper? 1) It doesn't react with water so is used in water pipes 2) It is a good conductor of electricity so is used for electrical wires
What are some properties and uses of gold? 1) It doesn't corrode and is attractive so is good for jewellery
What is a property and use of steel? Steel is very strong so is used to make machinery and building frames
What is an alloy? A mixture of metals (and sometimes carbon)that create a new metal with specific desired characteristics
Why are alloys stronger than pure metals? In a pure metal element, atoms are all the same size, therefore they easily slide over each other in layers when a force is applied. But in an alloy, the different sized atoms jam up the structure so that the layers do not slide over each other so easily
Why is gold alloyed? Gold is naturally very soft so is alloyed with other metlas such as copper and silver to make it stronger so it can be made into jewellery
How is the purity of gold measured? In carats (out of 24) and in fineness (out of 1000)
What is nitinol and what are its uses? It is a shape memory alloy made of nickel and titanium, which can be used to repair a collapses artery and for flexible spectacle frames
What is a smart material? A material thats properties change with a change in conditions
What is a shape memory alloy? An alloy which returns to its original shape when heated
Created by: 11043