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Science C1 Topic 2

GCSE edexcel core science chemistry: materials from the earth

How are igneous rocks formed? They are formed from solidified magma, either when it is erupted out from a volcano (forming extrusive rock) or when it cools in a chamber under the earth's surface (forming intrusive rock)
What are some properties of igneous rocks and examples of the rock? Interlocking crystals, hard, not porous, the size of crystals depends on the rate of cooling e.g. basalt, granite
How are sedimentary rocks formed? Rocks are weathered and eroded, sediments are transpored by water, wind or ice and are deposited, the sediments are compacted and then are cemented together.
What are some properties of sedimentary rocks and examples of the rock? Porous, rounded grains, may contain fossils, are susceptible to erosion, may contain layers, soft e.g. chalk, limestone, sandstone
How are metamorphic rocks formed? Rocks are put under great amounts of heat and/or pressure, new crystals form, creating a new rock
What are some properties of metamorphic rocks and examples of the rock? Very hard, interlocking crystals, not porous, non permeable, can contain layers e.g. limestone -> marble sandstone -> quartzite shale -> slate
What are some examples of rocks that are natural forms of calcium carbonate? Limestone, chalk, marble
What is quarrying rock? Mining for rock that is close to the surface
What are the advantages of quarrying limestone in the UK? *It allows people to use limestone all over the world * Cement, concrete and glass can be made * It can be used for building * It creates jobs * It boosts the UK economy
What are the disadvantages of quarrying limestone in the UK? * Quarries ruin places of natural beauty * Lorries cause traffic and are noisy * They also cause pollution * Quarries take up land space that may be valuable
What is thermal decomposition? When a compound breaks down due to heat
What is the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate? Calcium carbonate -> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
How is cement made? By heating limestone with powdered clay
How is concrete made? By mixing cement with sand, gravel and water
How is glass made? By heating limestone with sand and sodium carbonate
What type of metal compounds decompose the fastest? Less reactive metal carbonates
What is the smallest part of an element that can take part in chemical reactions? Atoms
What happens to atoms during a chemical reaction? They are rearranged to form new products with different physical and chemical properties to the reactants
What is the law of conservation of mass? It says that during a chemical reaction, mass in neither created nor destroyed- showing that atoms aren't created or destroyed (shown by a precipitation reaction)
what is a precipitate reaction? Where an insoluble product is produced from soluble reactants
What is another use of calcium carbonate? It can be used to neutralise acidic waste gases produced by a coal-fired power station, reducing harmful emmisions and reducing acid rain
What substances can be used to neutralise soil acidity? Calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate
Calcium oxide + water -> ? Calcium hydroxide- which can dissolve in water to form limewater
Created by: 11043