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C1 Extracting metals

Edexcel C1 topic 4 Extracting Metals

What is an ore? Rocks that contain enough of a metal compound so that profit can be made when you extract the metal from the metal oxide
"Aluminium + Oxygen --> Aluminium Oxide". What type of reaction is it? Oxidation
Name a metal that can be extracted by heating with Carbon Zinc, Iron
Name a metal that must be extracted by electrolysis Aluminium, Sodium
Name a metal that can be found native Gold , Platinum
Why can Iron be extracted by heating with Carbon? because Iron is LESS reactive THAN Carbon (saying "Iron is not very reactive" is not enough)
Why must Sodium be extracted by electrolysis? because Sodium is MORE reactive THAN Carbon (saying "Sodium is very reactive" is not enough)
"Aluminium + Iron Oxide --> Aluminium Oxide + Iron". What chemical is oxidised? Aluminium
"Aluminium + Iron Oxide --> Aluminium Oxide + Iron". What chemical is reduced? Iron Oxide
What type of compounds are found in metal ores? Mostly Metal Oxides
When you heat Tin Oxide with Carbon, you can extract Tin. Write the word equation. Tin Oxide + Carbon --> Tin + Carbon Dioxide
You get Aluminium when you electrolyse Aluminium Oxide. Write the word equation for the electrolysis of Aluminium Oxide. Aluminium Oxide --> Aluminium + Oxygen
Name the two methods to extract metals from their ores. Heating with Carbon and Electrolysis
Balance the following equation: __ PbO + __ C --> __ Pb + __ CO2 2 PbO + 1 C --> 2 Pb + 1 CO2
Balance the following equation: ___ Zn + ___ O2 --> ___ ZnO 2 Zn + 1 O2 --> 2 ZnO
State advantages of recycling metals Saves natural resources (Ores will run out), saves energy (Recycling Aluminium uses only 5% of the energy needed to extract Aluminium fronm the Ore)
State limitations of recycling metals The energy used in sorting rubbish from the metals
What does "malleable" mean? Can be hammered into shape
What does "ductile" mean? Can be stretched into wires
Why is Aluminium used for making the airplane frame? Because Aluminium is not as dense as other metals, so the airplane will not be too heavy. Yet Aluminium is a fairly strong metal.
Why is Copper used for making electrical cables? Because Copper is one of the best conductors.
Why is Gold used for jewellery? Because Gold is shiny and STAYS shiny, as it does not react with Oxygen in the air.
Why do not not use pure Iron for making bridges? What do we use instead? Pure Iron is too soft. We use an ALLOY of Iron: steel
Why do we use alloys of Gold for Jewellery rather than pure gold? Pure Gold is too soft. We use an ALLOY of Gold
Give a use for Aluminium and explain why Aluminium is used (rather than another metal) Aluminium can be used for making the big electricity cables (the ones hung between pylones) because Aluminium is lightweight. Using a different metal would mean that the cables would be heavier.
Give a use for Copper and explain why Copper is used (rather than another metal) Water pipes because Copper is not very reactive, so Copper will not react with the water.
What is an Alloy? A MIXTURE of two metals (NOT a compound)
Use the idea of particles to explain why pure metals are malleable. In a Metal, particles are organised in a regular arrangement, because the particles are all the same size. When a force is applied a layer of particles can slide over the rest of the metallic structure
Use the idea of particles to explain why pure alloys are stronger than pure metals. In an Alloy, particles are different sizes so there is no regular arrangement. When a force is applied a layer of particles can NOT slide over the rest of the metallic structure
What are the two metals making the alloy Nitinol? Nickel and Titanium
What is a smart Alloy? An alloy that can go back to its original shape when you HEAT it up
24-Carat gold is made of 100% Gold. How much Gold is there is an 18-Carat Gold? 100/24*18=75%
100% Gold is said to have 1000 parts per thousand fineness. How much Gold is there is a 250-fineness Gold? 100/1000*250=25%
Why is Aluminium used for making cans even when Aluminium is so reactive? Aluminium reacts very quickly with Oxygen to form a thin layer of Aluminium Oxide. The Aluminium Oxide is NOT reactive.
Why is Aluminium extracted by electrolysis but Iron extracted by heating with Carbon? Because Aluminium is more reactive THAN CARBON, so the Carbon can not take away the Oxygen; but Iron is less reactive THAN CARBON, so Carbon can take away Aluminium (compare the reativity of metals TO CARBON)
How many carats in pure gold? 24 Carats
What is the keyword that means "easy to shape" Malleable
Why should we recycle metals? To save resources (Ores are a finite resource); to save energy (extracting metals spends more energy than recycling); to reduce CO2 emissions (less CO2 produced during recycling) ["to keep on re-using metals" does not explain}
What should you say instead of "to save the environment";"to reduce pollution";"it is more eco-friendly" State WHICH GAS is produced (CO2? SO2?) and how it affects the environment (Greenhouse? acid rain?)
Which method would you use to extract Sodium from its ore? Electrolysis (because Sodium is a metal more reactive THAN CARBON)
Which method would you use to extract Iron from its ore? Heating with Carbon (because iron is less reactive THAN CARBON)
To make Iron, Iron Oxide is heated with Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide is formed. Write the word equation for the extraction of Iron. Iron Oxide + Carbon Monoxide --> Iron + Carbon Dioxide
Created by: UrsulineChem



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