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Chaper 5 science

Section 1,2,3 2012

Valence electron Electrons that have the highest energy level and are held very loosely.These are only on the outer shell.
Ions An atom with an elelctric charge caused by the loss/gain of valence electrons.2 types of ions: Cations (+)+ Anions (-).Properties: High melting points, electrical conductivity (dissolved in water), made of crystals. Metal+Nonmetal reacting.
Cation A positively charged ion.
Anion A negatively charged ion.
Formula to name Ionic bonds The metal is written first, then the nonmetal. Write the normal name for the metal element. If there is more than one nonmetal, add -ide. If there is one nonmetal, add -ite or -ate.
Covalent bond A Chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule. 2 types of Covalent bonds:Polar+Non-polar. 2 nonmetals reacting to each other. Share valence electrons.Properties: bad conductivity,low meling points+boiling points.
Polar bonds A covalent bond in which electrons are unequally shared.
Non- Polar Bonds A covalent bond where both sides pull equally on electrons.
Formula to name Covalent bonds Element furthest left on periodic table first. Add a prefix to the first element only if there is more than one. Add a prefix to hte second element.
Formula to determine # of shells The elements in each period have the same number of shells as the period number. (horizontal)
Formula to determine number of total electrons Each element has the same number of electrons as their atomic number.
Formula to determine number of electrons gained or lost # of electrons gained or lost is determined by how many Valence electrons the element needs to gain or lose to reach 0 or 8. ( 4 goes either way)
Lewis Dot structure Lewis dot structures are drawn to show how many valence electrons are in an element. They start at the right and go counter clockwise.
Subscript A subscript is the little number beneath/next to the compound and tells you the ratio of elements in the compound.
Formula to determine number of Valence electrons Formula to determine number of Valence electrons is the same as the group it's in (Or the second numnber of the group #, ex. 16 is 6)
Created by: Lou399