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Chemistry Exam

Chemistry Exam Vocabulary

the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undegoes. Chemistry
smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element Atom
a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded. compound
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom. element
a measure of the amount of matter mass
anything that has mass and takes up space matter
a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties mixture
a vertical column on the periodic table group/family
a testable statement hypothesis
a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data. scientific method
a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena theory
the ratio of mass to volume or mass divided by volume. density
the amount of space occuiped by an object volume
the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured. accuracy
the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way precision
any digit in a measurements that is know with certainty plus one final digit, which in somewhat uncertain or is estimated. significant figures
the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element atomic number
6.022 x 10 to the 23rd; the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance Avogadro's number
atoms in the same element that have different masses isotopes
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope mass number
the mass of one mole of a pure stubstance. molar mass
the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 mole
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space electromagnetic radiation
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy that it has in its ground state excited state
the lowest energy state of an atom ground state
a particle of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries a quantum of energy photon
a mathematical description of the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles quantum theory
an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can recieve it. Aufbau Principle
the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers periodic law
an arrangement of the elements with similar propeties fall in the same column or group periodic table
a negative ion anion
one-half the distance betewwn the nuclei of two identical atoms that are bonded together atomic radius
a postive cation
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compiund to attract electrons electronegativity
an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge ion
an electron that is available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds valence electrons
a chemical bond resulting from the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms covalent bonding
the chemical bond resulting from electrical attraction between large numbers if cations and anions ionic bonding
having an uneven distribution of charge polar
a formula that indicated the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts. chemical formula
a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds molecule
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level. octet rule
a naming system nomenclature
an ionic compound compoosed of a cation and the anion to form an acid salt
the sum of the average atomic masses of all the atoms represent in the formula of any molecule, formula unit, or ion formula mass
the percentage by mass of each element in a compound percentage composition
the symbols for the elements combined in a compound with subscripts showing the smallest whole-number mole ratio of the different atoms in the compound. emperical formula
a representation, with symbols and formulas, of the identities and relative amounts of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction chemical equation
a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in a solution and that separates from the solution precipitate
a reaction in which a single compound produces two or more simpler substances decomposition reaction
a reaction in which the ions of two compounds exchange places in an aqueous solution to form two new compounds double-replacement reaction
a reaction in which one element replaces a similar element in a compound single-replacement reaction
the measured amount of a product obtained from a reaction actual yield
the reactant that limits the amount of the other reactants that can combine -and the amount of product that can form- in a chemical reaction limiting reactant
the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, mulitplied by 100. percent yield
the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant theoretical yield
spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by thier random motion. kinetic-molecular theory
a device used to measure atmospheric pressure barometer
the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversley with pressure at a constant temperature Boyle's Law
the volume of a fixed mass of gas at a constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature Charles' Law
simple mathematical relationships between the volume, temperature, pressure and quantity of a gas. gas laws
the pressure of a fixed mass of a gas at a constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature Gay-Lussac's Law
a mixture consisting of particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions forming mixtures know as colloid dispensions colloid
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current electrolyte
capable of being dissolved soluble
the substance dissolved in a solution solute
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a sigle phase solution
the dissolving medium in a solution solvent
a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute. saturated solution
the number of moles of solute in 1 liter of solution molarity
Created by: RLCarter2015