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Chem Ch 6

Ch 6 Acid Rain

Base Turns litmus Blue. Basic solutions will conduct electricity. Foods taste bitter. Slippery feeling
Acid compound that releases hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions -turn litmus paper red -sour taste -solutions conduct electricity -react w/ some metals to make H2g
strong acid dissociates completely in aqueous solutions
How do SO2 and NO2 form acid rain? Both dissolve into rain and mist, which then form acids that in turn fall back into the earth's surface as rain and snow
Hydrogen atom consists of.... 1 electron and 1 proton. and is electrically neutral
Weak acid dissociates only to a small extent in aqueous solutions (carbonic acid)
Simple Acid Definition Something which breaks apart (ionizes or dissociates) to give a negative ion and a positive hydrogen ion.
H+ ions and negative ions are surrounded by..... water molecules
Hydronium Ion H3O+ produced from an H+ ion bonded with a water molecule
Simple Base Definition something which breaks apart )ionizes or dissociates) to give a positive ion and a hydroxide ion.
Oven cleaners are examples of bases
Lemon juice is an example of acids
Many common bases are compounds containing the.... hydroxide ion
Strong base dissociates completely in water
The bases that don't contain the hydroxide ion react with ..........to form it water
An acid is a proton _____ donor
A base is a proton ______ acceptor
Common Strong Acids sulfuric, nitric, hydrochloric
Common Weak Acids most of the other formed, acetic, phosphoric
Common Strong Bases All the OH bases
Common Weak Bases Ammonia
Neutralization Reaction chemical reaction in which the hydrogen ions from an acid combine with the hydroxide ions from a base to form water molecules
H + OH--> H2O is an example of neutralization reaction
Neutral Solutions Neither acidic nor basic. They HAVE equal concentrations of H+ or OH- ions. (pure water)
[H+] [OH-] =??? 1 x 10 ^-14
Acid solution [H] > [OH]
Neutral Solution [H] = {OH]
Basic Solution [H] < [OH]
Hydrogen Chloride gas dissolves into water to make.... hydrochloric acid
In order for water to become an acid it must.... give up a proton
In order for water to become a base it must.... accept a proton from another water molecle
PH measures how acidic or basic a solution is
pH less than 7 acid
pH greater than 7 base
pH that is 7 pure water, concentrations of H and OH are equal
P in pH stands for..... -log ([H+])
If you are given H and need to find pH use.... [H+]= 10 ^-pH
If pH increases, the sample is becoming more.....? basic
If pH increases, the sample is becoming less....? acidic
How do you measure pH? measuring probe has a membrane at the end which responds to H+ ions.
pH Indicators Chemicals that change structure due to the influence of the pH of the solutions, and one of the structures in the solution is colored.
Where do indicators naturally occur? plants such as rose petals, grape juice, cabbage juice
What special species does the ocean contain? Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Carbonic
Why do mollusks, sea urchins, and coral connect with the three species of the ocean? They build their shells out of calcium carbonate.
Ocean Acidification Lowering of the ocean pH due to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.
What is a consequence of low carbonate ion concentration in oceans? Thinning of shells on creatures, reefs growing at slower rates, weaker coral reefs, less fish habitats
A weakening of coral reefs would make marine life...... more susceptible to further damage from storms and predators
Ocean pH is kept at about 8.2
Other factors that need to stay constant in order for the ocean pH to stay the same are: keeping the ppm of atmospheric CO2 and sea temperature to stay constant
In 200 years the pH of the ocean has dropped to a level not seen in the past.......years 400 million
The oceans pH has dropped by how much since the early 1800s? about .1 pH
If the pH becomes lower in the ocean what would happen to the sediment places? shells and coral would most likely dissolve
Acid Rain pH lower than 5.3
pH meter special probe capped with a membrane is sensitive to..... H+
Precipitation any form in which water is returned to Earth. Rain, snow, fog, hail, ice, clouds
Acid Deposition Any way in which acidic substances are returned to Earth.
Aerosols Fine solid particles. Contribute to haze and also acid rain
What regions are significantly more acidic? Eastern and North eastern especially
What regions are acceptable to variation when it comes to acid rain? Western and Central regions
Why is rain acidic? Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere dissolves in rainwater
What is a proton in the periodic table? atomic number
What is an electron in the periodic table? atomic number
What is a neutron in the periodic table? mass-atomic number
Ammonia Base that doesn't contain the hydroxide ion but acts with water to form a base. Rapidly dissolves in water to form an aq solution
What causes acid rain? Dissolving of CO2 in rain and fresh water resulting in a drop of pH forming carbonic acid
What are the main oxidants that produce most acidic pollutants? NOx and SOx
Dry forms of acid deposit on land and water. Tiny solid particles (aerosols) of the acidic compound ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate are deposited.
Acid Anhydrides Acids without the water added (yet) Each acid can dissociate to give one or more H+ and leave behind the counter ion (sulfite, sulfate, nitrate)
SOx overall burns coal in power plants steel mills, heavy industries. Concentrated in NE. Coal combustion generates a lot of this.
What is good about burning coal? When combined with Oxygen it gives us carbon dioxide which gives us energy
What does coal consist of? C135 H96 O9 S
Coal produces ash which then..... catalyzes reactions to make sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid.
What all can convert SO2 to sulfuric acid? water in humid air, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone
how much does the ozone account for sulfuric acid? 20-25%
How much SOx emissions come from coal burning? 86%
How much SOx emissions come from transportation? 4%
how much SOx emissions come from industrial processes? 9%
Nitrogen is thought of being chemically..... unreactive
Where does NOx react with oxygen? high temperatures such as lightning, internal combustion engines of vehicles, coal fired power plants
How much NOx comes from transportation? 56%
How much NOx comes from fuel combustion? 38%
How much NOx comes from industry? 4%
NOx overall brown poisonous gas. Very reactive gas. Can react with OH to form nitric acid
Nitrification process of converting ammonia in the soil to the nitrate ion
Denitrification process of converting nitrates back to nitrogen gas. Soil bacteria convert NO-3 to other compounds; eventually to N2
What is the primary source of sulfur dioxide emissions? burning fossil fuels
What is the fate of nitrate ions under conditions of nitrogen saturation? They are washed into lakes and streams causing the water to increase in acidity.
Why have the efforts to reduce SOx met with greater success than those directed at NOx? Anthropogenic SOx emissions come form a limited number of point sources which is not true for NOx emissions.
A catalytic converter converts.... oxides of nitrogen to nitrogen gas and oxygen gas
The reason for corrosion durability of aluminum is that very un reactive aluminum oxide forms a thin layer on aluminum
Iron will rust..... in rainwater but quicker in acid rain due to the increased hydronium ion concentration
Why does Iron rust quicker in acid rain? Due to the increased hydronium ion concentration
Limestone allows lakes to ..... resist extra acidity since it contains CaCO3 which can react with and neutralize the acid.
The Haber Process Extract N2 out of the air and force it to become ammonia. Then can make millions of tons of ammonia which is used to make ammonium phosphate or ammonium nitrate which is a commercial fertilizer.
NO forms in.... forest first and lightning
SO forms in volcano eruptions and hot springs
Clean Air Act helped control and reduce SOx emissions.
Why is NOx a more complicated pollutant? it is harder to track. It reacts with oxygen at such high heights.
NO forms in.... forest first and lightning
SO forms in volcano eruptions and hot springs
Clean Air Act helped control and reduce SOx emissions.
Why is NOx a more complicated pollutant? it is harder to track. It reacts with oxygen at such high heights.
How do fertilizers affect the nitrogen cycle? They step in because bacteria cannot supply ammonia, ammonium ion, or nitrate ion in the amounts needed for optimal plant growth
How does the nitrogen cycle affect acid rain? Both NOx and fertilizer affect the balances within the nitrogen cycle on our planet. NOx emissions are a form of reactive nitrogen just like the fertilizers used to make our food.
Haze an Aerosol. East cause from coal burning power plants West cause from coal burning power plants and soil dust, soot from wood burning stoves It consists of PM (ash and soot) as well as NOx and SOx
Created by: averyhurst1