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AS101 Final

key words to know

absolute luminosity the total amount of light that an object puts out per second.
amplitude the height of a wave above its undisturbed state.
apparent luminosity the amount of light that an observer sees at their distance from an object.
astronomical unit (AU) the average distance of the Earth from the Sun.
cepheid variable a variable star that cycles from brighter to dimmer and back again with a regular pattern that is related to the stars absolute luminosity.
dark matter material that is difficult to see outside the universe but whose gravitational effects are obvious. EX: black wholes,dust, red dwarfs.
doppler effect observed wavelengths seen by an observer change as the observer moves toward or away from a source of light. toward=shorter away=longer
electromagnetism 1 out of 4 forces in the universe. holds atoms together. produces light in the form of photons
electron a negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom.
falsified when the prediction of a hypotheses does NOT match the experimental results
flux the amount of light crossing an observer per second per unit area from some light source
frequency the number of cycles a wave completes per second.
Galileo Italian math professor who used the telescope to show that the heliocentric model was indeed true
geocentrism idea that the earth is the center of the universe and that the sun and the planets orbit the earth.
gravity 1 out of 4 forces. objects with mass attract one another with a force that depends on the inverse of the square of the distance between the two objects
heliocentrism presented by copernicus, that the earth was like the rest of the planets and orbited the sun
edwin hubble american astronomer discovered universe was bigger than the milky way. showed the universe was expanding
hubbles law galaxies that are farther away appear to be moving away from earth faster than galaxies that are closer.
hypothesis an idea of some feature of nature works that also makes a prediction of some testable measurement related to the explanation.
johann kepler german minister who was a mathematician. worked out proof the planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits.
light year distance light travels in one year
isaac newton english math professor who invented calculus.
neutron neutral particle in the center of an atom.
nucleus center of an atom that contains protons, neutrons.
parallax observation that the apparent position of a distant object changes depending upon where the observer is.
parsec distance required for a star to produce a parallax angle of 1 arc second with the earth have a baseline of 1 AU
period length of time to complete one cycle of a wave
photon a particle of light. all of them have the same speed, but can have different energy, frequency,or wavelength. NO MASS
proton positively charged particle at the center of an atom
speed of light instantaneous speed of light is 3 x 10^8 m/s
standard candle object out in space with a known absolute luminosity.
strong force 1 out of 4 forces. this one holds nuclei of atoms together
theory a well verified hypothesis
type 1A supernova a pair of stars that go through a sequence of dying. first star becomes a white dwarf then draws matter off of the second star. white dwarf explodes
type 2 supervova enormous star that explodes with bright explostion when it dies. mot a standard candle. after the explosion it becomes a neutron star or a stellar sized black hole
verified when a prediction of a hypothesis matches the results
wavelength the physical length of one complete cycle of a wave
weak force 1 out of the 4 forces. responsible for allowing particles to change identity from one type to another.
Created by: adrienne.nesbit