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princip. of chem. 1

final exam

What is chemistry? the science of matter and its changes from one form to another.
Density (g/mL) mass in (g)/volume in (mL) *Don't forget to convert those damn L!
macroscale things you see
microscale things you can see with a microscope
King Henry Died Drinking Chocolate.... kilo- 1*10^3 hecta- 1*10^2 Deca- 1*10^1 ----- deci- 1*10^-1 centi- 1*10^-2 milli- 1*10^-3 micro- 1*10^-6 pico- 1*10^-9 nano- 1*10^-12
How to get number of protons atomic number
How to get number of neutrons atomic mass-# of protons
How to get number of electrons usually the atomic number (but watch for + or - signs!)
What is the equation needed to determine the mass of isotopes? atomic mass= Sum of (E)(%abundance )(isotope mass)
Name the different groups on the periodic table! Group 1a- Alkali metals Group 2a- alkaline-earth metals group 7a- halogens group 8a- noble gases
more about alkali metals -basic solutions -very reactive -only found in nature as compounds
more about alkaline-earth metals -obtained from minerals -very reactive -produce basic aqueous solutions (except Be) -only in found in nature as compounds.
more about groups 3a-6a most abundant elements in atmosphere and earth's crust.
what are organic compounds made of? nitrogen carbon oxygen hydrogen
more about halogens -highly reactive -react vigorously with alkali metals to form salts -these make diatomic molecules
more about noble gases -the least reactive elements -called the inert gases
Which are the metaloids? -boron -Silicon -Germanium -arsenic -antimony -tellurium -polonium -astantine
What is the name for the 1st period underneath the transition? Lanthanide series
What is the name for the 2nd period underneath the transition? Actinide series
energy capacity to do work
work energy that is transferred to the object.
Equation for kinetic energy E_k_=1/2(m)(v^2^) m=mass v=velocity
What is the difference between food calories and science calories? Cal.= (1000/1 cal)
When is (triangle)E positive? -When heat goes INTO the system! -bond BREAKING -endothermic
When is (triangle)E negative? -When heat travels OUT of the system! -bond making -exothermic
Which elements have more things in common? Ones in the same group or in the same period? THE SAME PERIOD!
What determines chemical reactivity? The number of valence electrons and their shells.
Frequency and wavelength v(wavelength)=speed of light speed of light= 3.00*10^8 m/s v= # of waves
What happens to frequency when wavelength is larger? FREQUENCY IS SMALLER!
How to find the energy of one quantum -planks quantum theory E_quantum_= hv Do this the second you see *Photon* v=the frequency of the light or #of waves h= plank's constant= 6.626*10^-34
what happens to energy as wavelength increases? ENERGY GOES DOWN!!
What is the photoelectric effect? when a metal is illuminated by light of a specific wavelength, the metal will emit electrons. *The threshold wavelength is the shortest wavelength that can cause the photoelectric effect.
Heisenberg's Uncertainty principle the exact position of an electron at an exact moment cannot be determined
Cation positive ion -lost an electron *WILL ALWAYS HAVE A smaller RADIUS!
anion negative ion -gained an electron
isoelectronic when the electron configuration of an ion is the same as a noble gas. (ideal)
calorie the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by one degree
emission when an electron goes from a high level to a lower lever
ionization when an electron goes from the lowest lever to infinity
effective nuclear charge the more electrons there are on the valence, the stronger the attraction between that valence level and the nucleus. larger effective nuclear charge= smaller radii -(ENC increases across the period)
ionization energy the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.
monatomic ions gain or lose enough electrons to have the same as a noble gas
What makes an inorganic compound doesn't contain carbon
octet rule all main group elements desire a stable octet. *doesn't apply to those under 5 *third period can have extra!
cis-isomer on the same plane
trans-isomer on different planes
electronegativity the ability of a covalent bond to attract shared electrons to itself
bond polarity then 2 of the same atoms are bonded together the bonding electrons are shared EQUALLY.
polarity the difference in electronegativity of 2 atoms. can be polar b/c of electron clouds. you can find out by putting dipoles that point to the most electronegative atom in a bond.
electron pair geometry what it would be if the electron bubbles were atoms
molecular geometry what the shape is actually called because the clouds are only clouds. ex: seesaw is trigonal bypyramidal with one electron cloud
noncovalent forces -London dispersion (they all have this one) -dipole dipole -hydrogen bonding (O-H, N-H, F-H)
polarity and boiling point -generally, the higher the MW, the higher the boiling point -more forces= higher boiling point
hybridization the arrows!!
How to find the limiting reagent find out how many moles of product ea. will make. The least in the limiting reagent
percent yield actual/theoretical
how to calculate excess get the difference of how much product was thought to be made and how much was actually made. Get an answer from the reactant off of that.
form of precipitates gas, solid, MOLECULAR COMPOUND!
reduction reaction gain of electrons
oxidation reaction loss of electrons
redox reactions breaking down a reaction to only show the ones that have undergone oxidation or reduction reaction
when calculation oxidation numbers.... MAKE SURE IT'S EQUAL TO AN OVERALL CHARGE! *leave transition metals for last!
Created by: pushtogetthere