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Chem Ch 5

Water for Life

QuestionAnswer
Electronegativity Measure of the attraction of an atom for an electron in a chemical bond.
Most electronegative element first= fluorine; second= oxygen
Ideal Covalent bond and electronegativity x and y have identical electronegativities. Most common. Neither dominate so the electrons are equally shared between them.
Polar Covalent and electronegativity X and Y have dissimilar electronegativities. The one with slightly higher electronegativity will have greater control of the electrons. This end of the bond will be slightly more negative; other will be positive.
Ionic bond and electronegativity X and Y have vastly different electronegativities. One with the greatest electronegativity will have full control of the electrons and have a -1 charge, and the other will surrender them and have a +1 charge.
Water has.... large specific heat, large heat of fusion, large heat of vaporization, and high boiling point
High heat capacity can take a lot of heat before reaction occurs
Solvent Capable of dissolving 1 or more pure substance
Water becomes _______ when it freezes less dense
Polar covalent bond a covalent bond in which the electrons are not equally shared but rather are closer to the more electronegative atom
Hydrogen bond electrostatic attraction between a H atom bonded to a highly electronegative atom (O, N, or F) and a neighboring O, N, or F atom, either in another molecule or in a different part of the same molecule.
Intermolecular Force Force that occurs between two molecules (hydrogen bonding)
Intramolecular force force that exists within a molecule
Water is ______ bonded with a ______ shape. covalently; bent
Density mass per unit volume.
How much water do we consume for domestic or household use? 10%
How much water do we consume for industrial needs? 20%
How much water do we consume for agricultural use? 70%
How much water on earth is fresh water? 3%
How much fresh water is easily accessible from lakes, swamps and rivers? .3%
Surface water fresh water found in lakes ,rivers, and streams. Water usually has to be treated before it is potable.
Ground water less convenient to access. Fresh water found in underground reservoirs also known as aquifers. Accessed by drilling wells or using naturally occurring springs.
Aquifers underground reservoirs. Water trapped 50-100 ft underground inside sand or gravel.
Water covers over how much of the planet? 70%
Specific heat heat required to warm 1 g of a substance by 1 degree Celsius
Heat of Fusion Heat required to just melt 1 g of a substance already as its melting point
Heat of vaporization heat required to boil 1 g of a substance already at its boiling point
Electronegativity ______ from left to right. Increases
Density of ice is _______ than that of water. Lower. Hydrogen bonds cause ice to have an open structure. As ice melts, molecules enter into these channels, the density of liquid water is higher. Allows for aquatic life, but causes burst pipes.
How much water do US residents use a day? 100 gallons. Very little needs to be fit to drink.
What are the choices of potable water in the US? Tap water, drinking water, filtered tap water
Why can't water always be used for drinking water? Climate patterns, over-consumption, inefficient use contamination
Solubility Result of an interaction between polar water molecules and the ions which make up a crystal.
Ionic Compounds High melting and boiling point. Soluble in polar solvents like water. Insoluble in non polar solvents. Molten and/or aqueous solutions conduct electricity well. Formed from elements with very diff electronegativities
Covalent Compounds Lower melting and boiling point. Often insoluble in polar solvents. Many soluble in non polar solvents. Molten and/or aqueous solutions poor conductors of electricity. Formed from elements w/ similar electronegativities.
Solvent substance, often a liquid, that is capable of dissolving one or more pure substances.
Solute Solid, liquid. or gas that dissolves in a solvent
Aqueous solutions solutions in which water is the solvent
Non electrolyte solute that is nonconducting in aqueous solutions
Electrolyte solute that conducts electricity in aqueous solutions
Cation positively charged ion.
Anion Negatively charged ion
Ion an atom or group of atoms that has acquired a net electric charge as a result of gaining or losing one or more electrons
In an ionic compound the sum of the....... positive charges equals the sum of the negative charges
Surfactants compounds that help polar and non polar compounds to mix, sometimes called "wetting agents"
Surfactants have a.... polar head and a non polar tail
Polar head is an anion or cation that dissolves in water
Non polar tails.... dissolves in oil
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal Maximum level in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on human health would occur. (ppm or ppb)
Maximum Contaminant Level The legal ppm or ppm concentration limit for a contaminant
Polar having a pair of unequal opposite charges
Non Polar having a pair of equal same charges
Electrolyte a solute that conducts electricity in aqueous solutions
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory The valence electron pairs surrounding an atom mutually repel each other, and will therefore adopt an arrangement that minimizes this repulsion, thus determining the molecular geometry
Electronegativity Concept the greater the electronegativity the more an atom attracts the electrons in a chemical bond
What is reverse osmosis used for? To purify water
Desalination any process that removes ions from salt water
How many Liters are produced a day by desalination? 60 billion
Distillation Process in which a liquid solution is heated and the vapors are condensed and collected.
Flocculation is used to remove fine suspended matter. Solutions of calcium hydroxide and aluminum sulfate are added in water treatment. Creates sticky precipitate of aluminum hydroxide.
Spectator Ions Ions which don't form precipitates in a precipitation reaction. Ions which are not involved in an acid base reaction
Created by: averyhurst1