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Chem 111- Unit 5

net ionic equation only the ions that react
spectator ions (precipitation/ acid-base) the ions that don't change during the reaction
base OH-
acid H3O+ or H+
strong acids (6) HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
strong acids (definition) dissociate 100%
strong bases (definition) dissociate 100%
weak acids all acids that aren't strong-> don't associate much at all
weak bases all bases that aren't strong-> don't associate much at all
precipitation rxns w/ weak bases the weak base doesn't dissociate (only 1 overall spectator ion)
redox reaction electrons move from one reactant to another
oxidation loss of electrons
reduction gain of electrons (charge becomes more negative)
oxidizing agent gets reduced (does the oxidizing)
reducing agent gets oxidized (does the reducing)
ON of elemental forms 0
ON of monoatomic ion its charge
sum of ON values= charge on the species
ON of 1A & 2A elements +1 and +2 (respectively)
ON of H + nonmetal +1
ON of H+ metal -1
ON of F -1
ON of O (in peroxides) -1
ON of O (all but peroxides) -2 *except F
three things to put in a moles table initial, reacting, final
limiting reactant completely consumed; runs out first
excess reactant in excess cf. the other reactant(s)
a ____ table works the same way as a moles table pressure
ΔE= q+w (heat + work)
Conservation of Energy total energy in the universe is constant
W= -PΔV(gas)
enthalpy the change in heat in a rxn; excluding work
exothermic -ΔH, heat released
endothermic +ΔH, heat absorbed
Hess's law the enthalpy change of an overall process is the sum of the enthalpy changes of the individual steps
standard heats of reaction (ΔH°)- 3 1 atm (gases) 1 M (aq) most stable form & @ 298K/1atm (other)
standard heats of formation (ΔH°f) ΔH associated w/ 1 mole of a compound formed from its elements in standard states
ΔH°f calculation ΔH(products)-ΔH(reactants)=ΔH(overall)
ON of 7A elements -1 (w/ metals, nonmetals (except O), and other (lower) Halogens)
Created by: melaniebeale