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Carb Metabolism

Glycogen storage form of glucose it is a polysaccharide-1000 of glucose linked together.
glycogenolysis break down of glycogen to glucose so body can use for energy.
glycogenesis formation of glycogen from glucose.
glycolysis glucose change to energy.
gluconeogenesis new glucose from fat or protein
Where is glycogen made and stored? made in liver, and stored in liver and muscle.
What does the live do for blood sugar? Liver removes or adds sugar to the blood liver.
Where is insulin made? Beta cells of Islets of Langerhans in pancreas.
What does insulin do? Stimulates transport of glucose through the cell membrane. Must be present for glucose to enter the cells.
Where are ketone bodies made? Made in liver.
What are ketone bodies made from They are made from excess fatty acids.
Ketonuria Ketone bodies in urine.
Ketoneemia Ketone bodies in blood.
Ketoacidosis Blood pH less than 7.35 do to Ketone Bodies in Blood. Ketones are Acid.
Hyperglycemia High glucose level
Hypoglycemia Low glucose level
glucosuria/glycosuria glucose in urine - abnormal
renal threshold Blood level above which glucose spills into urine.
Know IDDM? Type I, Any age more common in youth 8-12. Symptons - Polyphagia, Polyuria, Polydipsia weight loss.
Know NIDDM? Type II, Adult 90-95% Adult more common. Over 30. Happens over time. Symptons - None, wound infection, drowsey.
Which type of diabetes has a tendency to get ketoacidosis? Type I, because they have no insulin of their own.
Which type of diabetes may be controlled by diet alone: Type II
What do diabetics metabolize instead of glucose? Fat lipid, triglycerides, fatty acids.
Diabetic Coma - Insulin level None or low
Diabetic Coma - Blood glucose level high
Diabetic Coma - Urine glucose high
Diabetic Coma - Onset hours to days
Diabetic Coma - Symptoms deep breathing, dry tongue and skin, fruity breath, sleepy, coma
Insulin Shock - Insulin level none
Insulin Shock - Blood Glucose level to low
Insulin Shock - Urine glucose negative
Insulin Shock - onset Suddenly in minutes
Insulin Shock - Symptoms shadlow breath, rapid heart, lite head, faint intoxicated or drunk acting thick speach
What samples are taken for OGTT fASTEN 1, 2, 3, Hours glucola.
How is the 2 hours postprandial glucose test done? 2 hours after a meal
what does the Hb-A1c test measure measures hemoglobin A1(Hb-A1) combined with glucose, also called glycosylated hemoglobin.
What is the advantage of Hb-A1c test? Reflects blood glucose over a 3 month period, 4 to 6% is normal.
Created by: stefaneks



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