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Chemistry @ BPA

Chemistry Definitions for Ball Prep Academy PreAP Chemistry Class

The study of the structure, properties, and composition of substances, and the changes that substances undergo. Chemistry
The study of compounds that contain the element Carbon. Organic Chemistry
Primarily the study of substances that do not contain the element Carbon. Inorganic Chemistry
The study of the composition of substances. Analytical Chemistry
The study of the theoretical basis of chemical behavior, relying on mathematics and physics. Physical Chemistry
The study of the composition and behavior of substances in living organisms. Biochemistry
The method of inquiry involving observation, experiments, hypothesis, and broad explanations called theories. Scientific method
Information obtained through the senses; observation in science often involves a measurement. Observation
A proposed explanation for observations. Hypothesis
A carefully controlled, repeatable procedure for gathering data to test a hypothesis. Experiment
A thoroughly tested model that explains why experiments give certain results. Theory
A concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments. Scientific Law
Anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter
The amount of matter that an object contains; the SI base unit of mass is the kilogram. Mass
A quality of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s chemical composition. Physical property
A matter that has a definite shape and volume. Solid
A form of matter that flows, has a fixed volume, and takes the shape of its container. Liquid
Matter that has no definite shape or volume; it adopts the shape of its container. Gas vapor
An alteration of a substance that does not affect its chemical composition. Physical change
A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample. Extensive property
A property that does not depend on the size of the sample. Melting points, boiling points, colour, conductivity, and density are examples. Intensive property
The ability of a substance to undergo chemical reactions and to form new substances. Chemical property
A physical blend of two or more substances that are not chemically combined. Mixture
A mixture that is not uniform in composition; its components are readily distinguished. Heterogeneous mixture
A mixture that is uniform in composition; its components are not readily distinguished. Homogeneous mixture
A homogeneous mixture. Solution
The changing of substances to other substances by the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of bonds in products. Chemical reaction
Starting substances in a chemical reaction. Reactants
Substances formed in a chemical reaction. Products
Mass can neither be created or destroyed in an ordinary chemical or physical process. Law of Conservation of Mass
A measurement that gives descriptive, non-numeric results. Qualitative measurements
A measurement that gives definite, usually numeric results. Quantitative measurements
The expression of numbers in the form N x 10n where N is equal to or greater than 1 and less than 10 N is an integer. Scientific notation
The closeness of a measurement to the true value of what is being measured. Accuracy
Describes the closeness, or the reproducibility, of a set of measurements taken under the same conditions. Precision
All the digits that can be known precisely in a measurement, plus a last estimated digit. Significant figures
The percent that a measured value differs from an accepted value. Percent error
The ratio of the mass of an object to its volume. Density
The measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in matter; temperature determines the direction of heat transfer. Temperature
A technique of problem solving that uses the units that are part of a measurement to help solve the problem. Dimensional analysis
A negatively charged subatomic particle. Electron
A positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Proton
A subatomic particle with no charge and a mass of 1 amu; found in the nucleus of the atom. Neutron
The dense central portion of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons. Nucleus
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element. Atomic number
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Mass number
Atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons. Isotopes
The weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element. Atomic mass
When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties. Periodic law
A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table. Period
The vertical column of elements in the periodic table; the constituent elements of a group have similar chemical and physical properties. Group
Group A elements on the periodic table; together , these elements, which have only partially filled outermost s and p sublevels, illustrate the entire range of chemical properties. Representative elements
One of a class of elements that includes a large majority of the known elements; metals are characteristically lustrous, malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity. Metals
Any metal in Group 1A of the periodic table. Alkali metals
Any metal in Group 2A of the periodic table. Alkaline earth metals
Group B element characterized by addition of electrons to d suborbitals. Transition metals
An element in the lanthanide and actinide series; characterized by addition of electrons to f orbitals. Inner transition metals
One of a class of elements that are not lustrous and are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity; nonmetals are grouped on the right side of the periodic table. Nonmetals
Any member of the nonmetallic elements in Group 7A of the periodic table. Halogens
Any member of a group of gaseous elements in Group 0 of the periodic table; the s and p sublevels of their outermost energy level are filled. Noble gases
One of a class of elements having properties intermediate to metals and nonmetals. Metalloids
A compound that is composed of molecules. Molecular compouds
An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge. Ions
Any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge. Cation
Any atom or group of atoms with a negative charge. Anion
A compound composed of positive and negative ions. Ionic compounds
A chemical formula that shows the actual number and kinds of atoms present in a molecule of a compound. Molecular formula
The lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound; in magnesium chloride, the ratio of magnesium ions to chloride ions is 1:2 and the formula unit is MgCl2 Formula unit
A single atom with a positive or negative charge as a result of losing or gaining valence electrons. Monatomic ions
A tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit and carries a charge. Polyatomic ions
The amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 1023 representative particles of that substance. Mole
The number of representative particles contained in one mole of a substance; equal to 6.02 x 1023 particles. Avogadro’s number
The mass, in grams, of one mole of atoms in a monatomic element; it is numerically equal to the atomic mass in amu. Gram atomic mass
The mass, in grams, of one mole of a molecular substance. Gram molecular mass
The mass of one mole of an ionic compound. Gram formula mass
An expression representing a chemical reaction; the formulas of the reactants (on the left) are connected by an arrow with the formulas for the products (on the right). Chemical equation
A chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products. Skeleton equation
A small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a balanced chemical equation. Coefficients
A chemical equation in which mass is conserved; each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element. Balanced equation
A substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation-energy barrier; the catalyst is not used. up. Catalyst
A chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance; also called a synthesis reaction. Combination reaction
A chemical change in which a single compound is broken down into two or more simpler products. Decomposition reaction
A chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound; also called a displacement reaction. Single-replacement reaction
A chemical change that involves an exchange of positive ions between two compounds. Double-replacement reaction
A chemical change in which oxygen reacts with another substance, often producing energy in the form of heat and light. Combustion reaction
Electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first. Aufbau Principle
Pauli Exclusion Principle
When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all orbitals contain one electron with their spins parallel. Hund’s Rule
Created by: ZingQueen



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