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Chem Mod 08

Apologia Chemistry Module 8

Valence electrons The electrons that exist farthest from an atom's nucleus. They are generally the electrons with the highest energy level number.
Noble gases The elements in 8A. Their s and p orbitals in their highest energy level are full.
Octet rule Most atoms strive to attain eight valence electrons. Hydrogen tries to get two.
For atoms in groups 1A-8A, the number of valence electrons equals ... ... the number of the column in which the atom is located
Ion An atom that has gained or lost electrons and thus has become electrically charged
In ionic compounds, nonmetals try to gain electrons so that their Lewis structure has _____ dots around it. 8 (except for H)
In ionic compounds, metals try to lose electrons until their Lewis structure has _____ dots around it. 0
Positive ions have the _________ name as the atom from which they came. same
Negative ions have an ________ suffix added to the name of the atom from which they came. "ide"
1A lose an electron 1+ charge
2A lose 2 electrons 2+ charge
3A all except boron become 3+
4A C and Si are non metals and become 4- All others are special
5A nonmetals become 3- don't worry about metals
6A nonmetals become 2-
7A become 1-
If the charges have the same numerical value, the subscript for each ion is ..... 1, and can be ignored
If the charges have different numerical values ..... drop the + and - signs, switch the numbers and use them as subscripts
Transition metals groups 1B - 8B
Ionization The process by which an atom turns into an ion by gaining or losing electrons
Ionization potential The amount of energy needed in order to take an electron away from an atom.
In general, the ionization potential of atoms __________ from left to right and ________ from top to bottom of the period chart. increases decreases
Periodic property A characteristic of atoms that varies regularly across the periodic chart
Electronegativity A measure of how strongly an atom attracts extra electrons to itself.
In general, electronegativity _______ from left to right and _______ from top to bottom on the periodic chart. increases decreases
In general, atomic radius _______ from left to right and _______ from top to bottom of the periodic chart. decreases increases
Covalent bond A shared pair of valence electrons that holds atoms together in covalent compounds
Atoms in covalent compounds _______ electrons in order to form molecules. share
Atoms in ionic compounds ___________ electrons to form ions. give or take
Double bond A bond made of two shared electron pairs
Triple bond A bond made of three shared electron pairs
In the periodic table, atoms that strongly hold their electrons, attract other electrons, and have a smaller radius are in the ... upper right corner
In the periodic table, atoms that have a weak hold on their electrons, don't attract other electrons, and have a larger radius are in the ... lower left corner
Created by: thomas.macri



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