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Physics Definitions

Module 3 Work and Energy

Work done by a force The product of the force and the distance moved in the direction of the force
The joule This is a unit of energy 1J is the work done when a force of 1N moves it's point of application 1m in the direction for the force
Conservation of energy States that energy cannot be created or destroyed, just converted from one form to another or transferred from one place to another
Power Rate of work done. Measured in Watts
The watt A unit of power. 1 Watt is 1J of energy transferred per second
Efficiency The ratio of useful output energy to total input energy
Tensile force Usually two equal and opposite force acting on a wire in order to stretch it
Compressive force Two or more forces that have the effect on reducing the volume of the object on which they are acting or reducing the length
Extension(x) the change in length of an object when subjected to tension
Elastic Limit The point at which elastic deformation becomes plastic deformation
Limit of proportionality The point at which at which an object no longer obeys Hooke's law
Force constant(k) Force per unit extension or compression
Hooke's law The extensions of an elastic body is proportional to the force that causes it to up the limit of proportionality
Elastic potential energy The energy stored in a stretched or compressed object (E.G. a spring)
Stress The force per cross-sectional area.
Strain The extension per unit length
Young's modulus(y) The ratio between stress and strain
Ultimate tensile strength the maximum tensile force that can be applied to an object before it breaks
Breaking stress The maximum stress that can be applied to an object before it breaks
Elastic deformation The object will return to it's original shape when the deforming force has been removed
Plastic deformation The object will not return to it's original shape when the deforming force is removed, it becomes permanently deformed
Ductile material Materials that have a large plastic region and can therefore be drawn into a wire (E.G. copper)
Brittle material A material that distorts very little even when subject to a large stress and does not exhibit any plastic deformation (E.G. concrete)
A polymeric material A material made of many smaller molecules bonded together, often making a tangle knot of chains (E.G. rubber) these materials often exhibit very large strains (E.G. 300%)
Created by: AliceP