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Astronomy Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
Who is Aristotle? most associated with the ancient Greek world view
What did Aristarchus do? He rejected the geocentric world view
What did Eratosthenes do? He accurately determined the size of Earth
What is Ptolemy? He's an almagest
Explain the geocentric model of the universe model of the universe with the Earth at the center and all other objects moving around it.
Explain the Heliocentric model of the universe model of the universe with the Sun at the center and all other objects moving around it.
What did Copernicus do? Heliocentric world view
Who is Tycho Brahe? The last astronomer without a telescope. He provided Kepler with the data needed in order to develop his 3 laws
What is J Kepler known for? The three laws of planetary motion
What is the first law of planetary motion called? The Law of Ellipses
Describe the law of ellipses. The orbit of a planet is an ellipse where one focus of the ellipse is the sun.
What is the second law of planetary motion called? The Law of Equal Areas
Describe the law of equal areas? A line from the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal amounts of time.
What is the second law of planetary motion called? The Law of Harmonies
Describe the law of harmonies The period of a planet's orbit squared is proportional to its average distance from the sun cubed.
What did Galileo do? He used a telescope and challenged the conventional wisdom of the motion of objects and the nature of the heavens
What did Galileo observe through his telescope? The phases of Jupiter, the moons of Jupiter, sunspots, and mountains on the moon
What is Newton known for? The three laws of motion and the universal law of gravity
What is the first law of motion called? The Law of Inertia
Describe the law of inertia A body remains at rest, or moves in a straight line (at a constant velocity), unless acted upon by a net outside force.
What is the second law of motion called? F = ma
Describe what F = ma means The acceleration of an object is proportional to the force acting upon it.
What is the third law of motion called? The Law of Reciprocal Actions
Describe the law of reciprocal actions? For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Describe the Law of Universal Gravitation F = G m1 m2 / r2
Wave nature of light light has wave properties; light is a special forum because our eyes are sensitive to it
frequency * wavelength velocity of light
what is light one type of electromagnetic wave
list the wavelengths from shortest to longest radio infrared visible ultraviolet x-ray gamma ray
what are red wavelengths the longest wavelengths we see
what are blue wavelengths the shortest wavelengths we see
what is a blackbody? a perfect absorber of light; a perfect emitter of light
define wein's law as the object gets hotter, the wave length gets shorter
define stefan boltzmann's law the hotter it is, the brighter it is
What gives off a continuous spectrum? A hot solid, liquid or gas, under high pressure.
What produces an emission line (bright line) spectrum? A hot gas under low pressure
When are adsorption line (dark line) spectrum's seen? When a source of a continuous spectrum is viewed behind a cool gas under pressure.
Kirchhoff's law describe the type of spectrum produced by different sources
doppler effect an apparent change in the wavelength of energy produced by an object that is caused by the object's motion towards or away from the observer; seen in the shifting of spectral lines.
What is the density of Pluto? 2000 kg/m3
What is so strange about Pluto's orbit? It has an elliptical orbit. Sometimes Pluto is closer to the Sun than is Neptune because of this.
What are Pluto's physical properties most like? The ice moons around the Jovian planets.
What type of planet is Pluto? A dwarf planet
Uranus and Neptune have similar what? Properties
The Great Red spot is associated with what planet? Jupiter
The Great Dark spot is associated with what planet? Neptune
What planet has helium precipitation? Saturn
What planet has a 90 degree tilt Uranus
What planet has retrograde rotation? Venus
What gives Neptune and Uranus their blue green color? Methane gas
Which solar objects have differential rotation? gas giants
What planet has constant clouds? Venus
What is the largest solar highland? Aphrodite Terra
Where is the Aphrodite Terra found? Venus
What space object has synchronous rotation? the moon
What space object has resonance rotation? Mercury
Has a surface dominated by impact craters? Moon and Mercury
Largest solar mountain (it's also a shield volcano)? Olympus Mons
Where is Olympus Mons found? Mars
Cassini Division is associated with what planet? Saturn
What are scarps? Huge cliffs on Mercury
What planet has no atmosphere? Mercury
What planet has a weak magnetic field? Mercury
What is the Caloris Basin? a large impact crater
Where is the Caloris Basin located? Mercury
What is a jumbled terrain? unusual hilly formation on mercury
What planet has a jumbled terrain? Mercury
What are inter crater plains? smoothed surface regions
What planet has inter crater plains? Mercury
What is the Valles Mariners? Enormous Valley that runs along the equator of Mars
What planet has Polar Icecaps? Mars
What planet is about 50K cooler than the Earth
? Mars
What is the approximate density of Mars? between 3000 and 4000
How much greater is Venus' atmospheric pressure compared to the Earth? 100 times greater
How much less is Mars' atmospheric pressure compared to the Earth? 100 times less
Which planets have a density less than 3000 kg/m3? Saturn, Pluto, Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune
What is the density of the Moon? around 3000 kg/m3
What gives Mars is rust like color? Iron Oxide
What planet's motion is most like the Earth's? Mars
What planet's tilt axis is most like the Earth's? Mars
What planet has no moons? Venus
What is the largest mountain on Venus? Maxwell Montes
Highland regions on Venus Isthar Terra, Alpha Regio, Beta Regio
What planet has a surface and interior core very similar to Jupiter's? Saturn
Core temperature at 6000K Earth
which of the planets have HOT iron rich cores? Earth, Venus
Which of the planets have COOL iron rich cores? Mars and Mercury
What is the Earth's atmospheric chemical composition? Nitrogen-78%, Oxygen- 21%
What is Venus' atmospheric chemical composition? CO2 - 95.3%, the rest is Nitrogen
What is Mars' atmospheric chemical composition? CO2 - 95.3%, the rest is Nitrogen
Unique feature about Saturn is what? a mechanism for internal heating.
The density of Saturn is what? 700 kg/m3
Which planets have ring systems? All the Jovian Planets.
Which planet's motion is closest to Jupiter's? Saturn
What is the Roche limit? the distance at which a large moon would experience extreme enough tidal stretching to be torn apart.
What are Shepherd Satellites? moon's whose gravitational pull influence the shape of the rings
What is the surface of Earth made of? Oceans and Continents.
What is the average density of the Earth? 5500kg/m3
What is the Earth's natural satellite? Moon
Main features of the surface of the Moon Maria & Highlands
Describe the crust of the moon thicker on far side thinner on Earth side.
Describe the interior of the moon Cool, not iron rich
Density of Mercury? 5400 kg/m3
What planet has no atmosphere and no moons? Mercury
Describe the motion of Jupiter Fast Differential rotation
What is the density of Jupiter 1330kg/m3
Describe the interior of Jupiter rocky core, metallic hydrogen (currents here produce the magnetic field)
What does the fast rotation of Jupiter cause? the clouds to form bands around the planet.
What are the typical colors of Jupiter's cloud layers? bright yellow, orange and red.
Density of Venus 5300 kg/m3
What is the Aphrodite Terra largest highlands
Where is the Aphrodite Terra located? Venus
Beta regio is on what planet? Venus
Beta regio has what? two Shield volcanoes
Describe the clouds on Venus Sulfuric acid clouds at 50 km
What is the temperature of Venus? VERY HOT 730K,
What are polar icecaps? Frozen water and carbon dioxide
Which planet has evidence of water flow in the past Jupiter
Describe the plate tectonic problem on Mars started the formation of plate (Valles Marineris is a huge rift valley, but the planet cooled too rapidly and the process stopped.
Which planet has global dust storms Jupiter
What are the two Moons on Jupiter Phobos and Deimos, small irregular shapes, not like our moon, more like captured asteroids.
high luminosity equals brightness
bright hot star equals brighter than the sun and hotter than the sun
the left side of an HR diagram is what? hot
the right side of an HR diagram is what? cool
the lower half of an HR diagram is what? dim
the upper half of an HR diagram is what? bright
main sequence stars go through what quadrant(s) of an HR diagram? A and D
white dwarf stars go through what quadrant(s) of an HR diagram? C
red giant stars go through what quadrant(s) of an HR diagram? B
high mass stars are where on an HR diagram? upper left
low mass stars are where on an HR diagram? lower right
what is the life span of a high mass star? short
what is the life span of a low mass star? long
using only the brightness and the distance to a star what can be determined? luminosity
using the temperature and luminosity of a star only what can be determined? radius
what are the stages of a star? main sequence, red giant, yellow giant, red giant, planetary nebula explosion, and white dwarf
what does a main sequence star fuse? hydrogen to helium
what does a red giant fuse? trick question! they don't fuse anything
what does a yellow giant star fuse? helium to carbon
what is the life span of a high mass star? short
what is the life span of a low mass star? long
Describe the evolution of a sun-like star? Low Mass (Sun-Like) -> planetary nebula ->white dwarf High Mass (> 10 solar masses) -> supernova(Type II) -> neutron star or black hole
has a solar mass greater than 10 high mass star
has a solar mass lower than 10 low mass star
continuous spectrum kind of like a rainbow; you see every wavelength
Emission line spectrum light emitted at very specific wavelengths; related to the chemical element producing the lines
Adsorption line spectrum get the rainbow with certain wavelengths missing
The wavelength of the emission or absorption lines depends on what? which atoms or molecules are found in the object under study; What atoms or molecules exist depend on: temperature, chemical composition.
Created by: laurenash