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Metal Extraction

The Extraction of Metals and the Environmental effects

How are metals usually found in the Earth? In Ores with other minerals, mainly as Oxides and Sulfides.
What two elements are Metals most commonly found combined with? Oxygen (Metal Oxides) and Sulphur (Metal Sulfides).
What will always happen to the oxidation state of a metal when it is purified of Oxides/Sulfides? It will always be reduced. (Go down).
What is the first process to purify a Metal Sulfide? Roasting, heating the ore with air converts the Metal Sulfide to a Metal Oxide.
Write an example equation of Roasting, using ZnS. ZnS + 1.5 O2 ---> ZnO + SO2 Zinc Sulfide + Oxygen ---> Zinc Oxide + Sulfur Dioxide.
What is one of the major problems with Roasting an Ore? Production of Sulfur Dioxide which is an Acid Gas and will form H2SO4 in a reaction with H2O and O2 in the atmosphere.
How can the SO2 produced by Roasting be used? Convert it to H2SO4 in a controlled environment and sell it!
What are the four options for Reducing Agents for metal purification from Oxides? Coke (to Carbon Monoxide), Hydrogen, More reactive Metal, electrolysis.
Describe the process of reducing Iron in Iron Oxide: Coke is burnt in hot air and releases CO2 and Heat, this causes more Carbon to react with the CO2 to form CO, the CO is the reducing agent and will reduce Fe2O3 to 2Fe + 3CO2.
What is the (final) reducing agent in the reduction of Iron? Carbon Monoxide.
Iron Reduction Step 1: Coke + Oxygen ---> Carbon Dioxide (and Heat)
Iron Reduction Step 2: Carbon Dioxide + Coke ---> Carbon Monoxide.
Iron Reduction Step 3: 3CO + Fe2O3 ---> 2Fe(l) + 3CO2
Name two other metals that are reduced by Carbon in a Blast furnace: Copper and Manganese.
Give two reasons why Carbon (coke) is not used as a reducing agent for some metals: Some metals would have to be heated to temp that is far too high to be economically viable and sometimes, at high temps, Carbonites will form.
What is the Reducing Agent for Tungsten (W)? Hydrogen.
Why can't Carbon be used for Tungsten, Aluminium and Titanium? Because it would form Carbides which make the metals brittle and impure.
What is the risk with using the Reducing Agent that is used to reduce Tungsten? Hydrogen is very explosive and is risky to use!
Write out the equation for the reduction of Tungsten from its Oxide with a suitable reducing Agent: WO3 + 3 H2 ---> W + 3 H20
What Conditions are required for The reduction of Tungsten? Very High Temperatures!
What is the process of reducing Aluminium Oxide called? Electrolysis.
What is the name of the Impurity added to Aluminium to lower its Melting point? Cryolite!
Write the overall equation for the extraction of Al from Al2O3: Al2O3 ----> 2Al + 1 1/2 O2.
Write the Half Equation for the reduction of Al2 2Al(3+)+ 6e- ---> 2Al
Write a Half Equation for the Oxidation of Oxygen: 3O (2-) ---> 1 1/2 O2 + 6e-.
What are the major costs of Electrolysis? Production of the Electricity and maintaining a High temp to keep the Al Molten.
How can the cost of melting the Impure Aluminium be reduced? Add Cryolite
What is the name of the Impure Aluminium Ore? Bauxite.
What is the Reducing Agent in the Extraction of Titanium? The reducing agent is a more reactive metal, commonly Sodium or Magnesium.
What is the first stage of the extraction of Titanium from its Oxide? It must be converted to Titanium Chloride first (TiCl4).
What is the second stage in extracting Titanium? TiCl4 (Titanium Chloride) is reacted with Molten Sodium (or Magnesium) in an Argo Atmosphere at high temps into Ti and 4 NaCl.
What conditions are used for the reaction of TiCl4: High Temperature and an Argon Atmosphere.
Why are these special conditions used to remove Ti from TiCl4: The Argon Atmosphere is used to prevent the metals (Na and Ti) from reacting with the Air (O2 and N2). High temperature to keep the metals molten.
Why is the process of extracting Titanium considered inefficient? The reducing Metals are expensive and the Argon Atmosphere is expensive to produce as is the high temp. It is also a BATCH PROCESS which means that the conditions need to be reset each time a batch is completed.
Created by: mjwilson1988