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Chem Ch 12

Chapter 12

Genome the complete set of inheritable traits of an organism
Genes short pieces of code for the production of proteins
Erwin Chargaff Percent of each base in a species is identical for all members of the same species (Chargaff's Rule)
Chargaff's Rule % of Adenine= % of Thymine % of Guanine= % of Cytosine
Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins 1952 took the first x-ray diffraction pattern of a DNA fiber (hinted at a helix and a stack of base pairs)
James Watson and Francis Crick drew mostly on results of Chargaff, Franklin, Wilkins, and Pauling; determined for a final structure of DNA has a double helix (A hydrogen bonded to T AND G hydrogen bonded to C)
Primary structure of protein the unique identity and sequence of the amino acids that make up each protein. First and most basic identifier of a protein. Contains 3 valines, 2 glutamic acids, and 1 histide. EX: val glu val his glu val
Secondary structure of protein the folding pattern within a segment of the protein chain. Helix, parallel chains, etc
Tertiary structure of protein Overall structure
X-ray Diffraction an analytical technique in which a crystal is hit by a beam of x-rays to generate a pattern that reveals the positions of the atoms in the crystal
Double helix a spiral consisting o two strands that coil around a central axis.
Primary DNA structure sequences of base pairs
Secondary DNA structure helix (double helix)
Tertiary DNA structure coiled coil
Codon sequence of three adjacent nucleotides that either guides the insertion of a specific amino acid or signals the start or end of protein synthesis.
How do codons code for proteins? Codon sequence CAC in a DNA molecule signals that a molecule of the amino acid histidine should be incorporated into the protein, TTC codes for phenylalanine, and CCG stands for proline.
Junk DNA sets of codons appear multiple times for frequently used proteins; the remainder was called junk DNA Components of an organism's DNA sequences that do not encode for protein sequences Some of this is now know to have a function
DNA in a human cell Base Pairs: 3 billion Genes: about 30,000 Chromosomes: 46, 23 pairs DNA molecules: 46 because each chromosome is one DNA molecule
Recombinant DNA a mix of genes from animal, plant, and bacteria. Use enzyme to extract and cut open plasmids from bacteria -Isolate/create gene coding for desired protein -Use another enzyme to insert gene into cut plasmid and rejoin making a vector -Vector carried b
Examples of recombinant DNA insulin human growth hormone, vaccines, DNA diagnosis
Created by: averyhurst1



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