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Chem Ch 11

Chapter 11

How does not eating meat save the health of the planet? Energy and environmental costs of growing and harvesting corn and other grains. High water footprint cost of producing food.
How does producing food take a toll on the planet? 1. Producing and transporting massive amounts of food 2. land in terms of raising crops and affording grazing space for animals
How much of the Earth's land surface is used for production of livestock? 30%
Bringing beef to the dinner table requires about 20 kg of grain and 245 m2 of land
Foodprint the amount land required per year to provide the nutritional resources for one person -Low fat vegetarian diet 0 grams of meat per day required use of about half acre of land -diet in high meat and fat 381 g almost four times or 1.9 acres
Most efficient diet for feeding the most people Small amount of meat (63 grams, or about 2.2 ounces each day) Eat more grains and less meat. Minimize food you throw away. Produce locally.
How much water are our bodies? 60%
Metabolism complex set of chemical processes that are essential in maintaing life
Malnutrition caused by a diet lacking in proper nutrients, even though the energy content of the food may be adequate
Undernourishment condition in which a person's daily caloric intake is insufficient to meet metabolic needs
Carbohydrates Compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, with hydrogen and oxygen found in the same 2:1 atomic ratio as in water. Monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide EX: starch (in spuds), cellulose (in paper) glycogen (bodys storage for carbs)
Monosaccharide EX: Fructose and glucose Have the formula C6H12O6 Contains a single ring consisting of 4 or 5 carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
disaccharide two linked monosaccharide units/rings EX: sucrose and lactose -Consisting of C12H22O11
polysaccharide Condensation polymers made up of thousands of monosaccharide units. (consists of many sugar units) EX: starch, cellulose, and glycogen
Composition of the human body 60% water; 20% fats; 0% proteins, carbs; 1% vitamins and other minerals
Triglycerides molecules that contain three ester functional groups. Formed from a chemical reaction between three fatty acids and the alcohol glycerol.
Fats triglycerides that are solids at room temperature
Oils Triglycerides that are liquid
All triglycerides are...... Lipids- class of compounds that includes not only triglycerides but also related compounds such as cholesterol and other steroids.
Fatty Acids Have two important characteristics: long non-polar hydrocarbon chain of carbon atoms (typically 12 to 24 atoms in length) carboxylic acid group, -COOH, at the end of the hydrocarbon chain. (stearic acid)
Glycerol Alcohol mentioned when describing biodiesel. Its sticky, syrupy liquid that is sometimes added to soaps, and hand lotions. Its an alcohol with three -OH groups.
How is a triglyceride formed? Each -OH group of glycerol molecule can form an ester with a fatty acid molecule to form a triglyceride. (most animal fats and vegetable oils are formed this way) *3 fatty acids can be identical, 2 the same, or all 3 different
Fats and Oils members of the lipid family, which includes cholesterol. They are triglycerides
Saturated contain fatty acids with no C=C bonds; only C-C bonds. In a saturated hydrocarbon chain the C atoms contain the maximum number of H atoms.
Unsaturated Contain fatty acids with one C=C bond per molecule.
Cellulose you can't digest this, but termites and ruminant animals can. This is because they or a bacteria in their gut possesses the correct enzyme (weird B linkage)
Lactose intolerance cause Lack of an enzyme (lactase) that breaks "weird B" linkage in lactose (milk sugar) into glucose and galactose. Lactose ends up being digested by bacteria in the intestine.
Polyunsaturated contains more than one double bond between carbon atoms. EX: Linoleic acid (two C=C double bonds per molecule) Linolenic (three C=C double bonds per molecule)
Monounsaturated Only one double bond between carbon atoms per molecule (Oleic acid)
How does saturation affect melting point? The long the chain (more C's) the higher the melting point. The more C=C in the chain, the lower the melting point (several similar length fatty acids)
Hydrogenation process in which hydrogen gas, in the presence of a metallic catalyst, adds to a C=C double bond and converts it to a single bond.
Hydrogenation in oil Converts one or more of the C=C double bonds in an oil to C-C single bonds, increasing the degree of saturation and raising the melting point.
Trans fat triglycerides that are composed of one or more trans fatty acids. These fats raise the level of triglycerides and bad cholesterol in the blood.
What does hydrogenation do? Makes them solidify Since C=C are prone to oxidation, slows time for oil to go rancid EX: creamy peanut butter, margarine, chocolate coating on pretzels, peanuts, raisins
What's good/bad about lipids in our diets? Provide cushion to our organs, insulation, its a component of cell membranes and nerve sheaths; our brains are rich in lipids
Cholesterol Is in the cell membrane and nerve sheaths; it is the most common steroid in the body
Molecular structure in Carbohydrates They are build of rings containing carbon atoms and an oxygen atom. EX: 32 chiral isomers are possible for the ring structure in glucose. Hydrogen atoms and -OH groups are attached to the carbon. Rings allow for many variations
Digesting polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) Bodies can digest starch by breaking it down into individual glucose units; cannot digest cellulose. Our enzymes are unable to catalyze the breaking of beta linkages in cellulose. Can't dine on grass or trees.
What happens when we have excess glucose in our bodies? It is polymerized to glycogen with the help of insulin and stored in our muscles and liver. When our glucose levels slip below normal the glycogen is converted back into glucose.
Sugar Fructose, high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup. To compare sugar to sucrose one would have to use less fructose to = the sweetness of a teaspoon of table sugar (sucrose) Lactose (milk sugar) would require more than 6 teaspoons
How much sugar should you have? added sugars limit to 32 grams or less. Translates into 8 teaspoons of sugar or about 128 calories daily.
Proteins A polyamide or polypeptide; that is, a polymer built from amino acid monomers. Made up of 20 different naturally occurring amino acids. Major component in hair, skin, and muscle. Transport oxygen, nutrients, and minerals through bloodstream.
Condensation polymers of amino acids "proteins" Where glycine provides the carboxylic acid and alanine provides the amine.
Nine essential amino acids 1. Histidine 2. Isoleucine 3. Leucine 4. Lysine 5. Methionine 6. Phenylalanine 7. Threonine 8. Tryptophan 9. Valine (20 in all)
General structure for an amino acid all attached to a carbon atom; a carboxylic acid group, an amine group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain designated R
Nitrogen balance a healthy adult excreting as much nitrogen (primarily as urea in the urine) as she or he ingests
Positive Nitrogen Balance growing children, pregnant women, or persons recovering from long term illness. Means they consume more nitrogen than they excrete because they are using the element to synthesize additional protein.
Negative Nitrogen Balance exists when more protein is being decomposed than is being made. Occurs in starvation, when the energy needs of the body are unmet from the diet, and muscle is metabolized to maintain physiological functions. (effect the body feeds on itself)
What kinds of foods are complete proteins? Beef, fish, and poultry
Protein Complementarity combining foods that complements essential amino acid content so that the total diet provides a complete supply of amino acids for protein synthesis.
Vitamins Organic compounds with a wide range of physiological functions. Only small amounts are needed in the diet, they are essential for good health, proper metabolic functioning, and preventing disease.
Fat soluble vitamins examples and toxic levels If swallowed in excess they can build up to a toxic level. Toxic build up-->fatigue and headache or even blurred vision and liver damage. More likely to overdose EX: Vitamins A, D, E, and K are stored in cells rich in lipids
Water soluble vitamins examples and toxic levels Need foods containing these vitamins frequently. Often contain several -OH groups that can hydrogen bond with water molecules. Excreted in the urine rather than stored in the body. -Can accumulate at toxic levels when taken in large doses.
Coenzymes Many water-soluble vitamins serve as this. They are molecules that work in conjunction with enzymes to enhance their activity. (Vitamin B family)
Minerals ions or ionic compounds that, like vitamins, have a wide range of physiological functions. Classified as either macro, micro, or trace
Macro-minerals EX: Ca, P, Cl, K, S, Na, and Mg Necessary for life but not nearly as abundant in our bodies as O,C, H, and N. -Need to ingest macro-minerals daily, typically in the range of 1 to 2 g.
Micro-minerals Fe, Cu, and Zn -Need less than macro and more than trace daily Body requires lesser amounts of these. May recognize iron as a component of hemoglobin a protein in the blood that carries oxygen.
Trace Minerals I, F, Se, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, B, Si, and Sn Measured in microgram quantities. -Need less more than .000001 g daily Total amount of this element in the body is about 25-30 g.
Minerals in the periodic table Metals exist as cations Nonmetals exist as anions
What is the most abundant mineral in the body? Calcium along with phosphorus and smaller amounts of fluorine. (bones and teeth)
Ca^2+ Bones, teeth, blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission
Na+ higher concentration than K+ outside blood cells.....Na+: K+ ratio controls heart beating Too much causes high blood pressure -EX: tomato soup "electrolytes of sports drinks"
K+ higher concentration than Na+ inside blood cells EX: oranges bananas, tomatoes, and potatoes "electrolytes of sports drinks"
Fe^2+ in hemoglobin and myoglobin Too much: liver cirrhosis (adults), death (children) Too little: anemia
I- in thyroxine in thyroid gland (hormone regulates metabolism) too much or too little thyroxine affects metabolism and causes hyperthyroidism (grave's disease)
Fat Soluble Overview Nonpolar; large hydrocarbon groups, but very few -OH groups -stored in cells (dissolve in lipids) -don't have to consume every day -Overdosing is bad: D is worst -Vitamins A, D, E, K
Water Soluble Overview Polar; smaller hydrocarbon groups, but a lot of -OH groups -unused excreted from urine -have to consume every day -Overdosing is rare but possible (ex: B6) -Vitamins C, B6, and others
Diseases caused by vitamin deficiencies C: scurvy- collagen in skin breaks down, bad gums; D: rickets- Ca not absorbed into bones: misformed; E: night cramps in calves, fibrocystic, breast disease; A: nigh blindness; B3: pellagra darkening/flaking of skin, vampire symptoms; B12: anemia; B1
Energy from food 4 cal/g for protein and carbs; 9 cal/g from fat Fats- lower oxygen content, concentrated long term energy source Carbs- quick energy source Proteins- only used as energy as a last resort
GI (Glycemic Index) How fast a food raises blood's glucose level and given the diet research, why we developed these low carb diets to start with.
Basal Metabolism Rate Calculation Take the persons weight (55 kg) and then multiply .... 1 Cal/(kg x h) x 55 kg x 24 h/day---->1300 Cal/Day
What is a typical daily value of calories? 2000 Calories (kcalories)
High Glycemic index All breads (finely milled flour), thin pasta, white rice, glucose
Low Glycemic Index thick pasta, converted riced, fructose, whole grains
What do bad carbs do to blood? Cause blood glucose to rise fast: spike in insulin and depresses glucagons -if you don't use glucose, it ends up as fat: if insulin spike drops blood glucose too fast you feel hungry
Reasons to eat local 1. Means more for the local economy 2. Produce is fresher and tastes better 3. better for air quality and pollution than eating organic 4. keeps us in touch with the seasons 5. supports responsible land development
Irradiation Ionizing short wavelength high energy gamma radiations -Kills micro organisms, approved by FDA in 1963, used for astronaut food, endorsed by UN's food division, widespread in Europe, Mexico, Canada: 40 approved foods, strawberries, spuds, fish, shrimp,et
Antioxidants prevent oils, fats in processed, packaged food from oxidizing- going rancid EX: BHT and BHA, they absorb radicals and stop the cycle
Created by: averyhurst1



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