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Chem Ch 10

Chapter 10

Valerian, passion floweranxiety
Licorice, wild cherry bark, thyme coughs
Echinacea, garlic, goldenseal root colds, flu
St. Johns Wart Depression- treats moderate NOT severe
Chamomile, peppermint, ginger nausea, digestive problems
Valerian, passion flower, hops lemon balm insomnia
Ginkgo biloba memory loss
Valerian, passion flower, kava kava, siberian ginseng stress, tension
Ephedra Derived from Chinese herb ma Huang, Helps respiratory problems, aids weight loss, sports performance enhancer, increases energy. Contains six amphetamine-like alkaloids DOES NOT contain methamphetamine
Ephedrine Main constituent of Ephedra. Opens the airways and stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. Relieves swelling of the mucous membranes.
Pseudoephedrine Nasal decongestant and has less stimulating effect on the heart and blood pressure.
Ephedra headlines in 2003 Deaths of well known athletes. Side effects reported nausea and vomiting, psychiatric disturbances (anxiety and agitation) high blood pressure, irregular heart beat, and more rarely seizures, heart attack, stroke and death
Who banned Ephedra in 2003? International Olympic Committee, National Football League, National Collegiate Athletic Association, minor league baseball, and US Armed Forces
Ephedra was banned in drugs but not.....? Tea and traditional chinese herbal remedies when prescribed by a traditional chinese physician.
Dietary Supplements Includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes, and herbs and other botanicals. HAve shown no adverse effects and in face have proven to be beneficial to good health.
FDA on dietary supplements They do no assess the purity of preparations or concentrations of active ingredients set amounts, or delivery protocols before they are marked.
What must NOW be asked before going into surgery? Are you taking any medications? AND are you taking any herbal remedies?
How many people are illegally using one or more drugs? Millions, 2008= 8% of population/ 20 million of age 12 or older reported using illicit drugs during the month prior to the survey
2008 Survey on Illegal drugs *Marijuana was the most common, 15 million users. Youths has decline slowly in past decade. *2 million (7%) cocaine, 467,000 use crack (can be inhaled) *Hallucinogens 1 million, 525,000 ecstasy *10 million reported operating a car while under influence
Survey of alcohol and tobacco -Over half population (12 and over) drank alcohol/about 130 million, 1/5 were binge drinkers (5 or more drinks at a time) -70 million tobacco users, 60 million cigarette smokers 28% of population
Title II of the Law, Controlled Substances Act Legal foundation of narcotics enforcement in the US. Regulates the manufacture and distribution of drugs and places all drugs into one of five schedules.
Controlled Substances Act (Schedule I) Has NOT accepted current medical use Has HIGH potential for abuse EX: heroin, LSD, weed/hashish, mescaline, MDMA "ecstasy"
Controlled Substances Act (schedule II) HAS current accepted medical users HIGH potential for abuse EX: oxycodone (OxyCotin and percocet), morphine/opium, methadone, cocaine, methamphetamine
Controlled Substances Act (Schedule III) HAS current accepted medical users has MEDIUM potential for abuse EX: hydrocodone with acetaminophen (vicodin), codeine with acetaminophen, anabolic steroids
Controlled Substances Act (Schedule IV) HAS current accepted medical users Has LOW potential for abuse EX: alprazolam (Xanax), propoxyphene and acetaminophen (darvocet), diazepam (valium)
Controlled Substances Act (Schedule V) HAS current accepted medical users Has the LOWEST potential for abuse EX: cough suppressants with small amounts of codeine, diphenoxylate and atropine (Lomotil), promethazine (phenergan)
Marijuana Most commonly used illicit drug Mixture of dried leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of hemp plant Cannabis Sativa Use dates back to time of Chinese Emperor Shen Nung (Ca. 2737 BCE)
Why did Chinese Emperor Shen Nung use Marijuana? Treatment of malaria, gas pains and absentmindedness
Hemp Cannabis sativa. Fiber is most well known product Hemp means the rope or twine made from the hemp plant
Where is the psychoactive drug in Cannabis sativa located? Leaves and flowers of the hemp plant. so you can't get high from smoking hemp rope or wearing clothing woven from hemp fibers
1937 Marijuana Tax Cut prohibited use as an intoxicant and its medical use was regulated as national concern of its use emerged. Act required anyone producing, distributing, or using marijuana for medical purposes to register and pay a tax. Made it expensive and inconvenient.
Why was marijuana removed form the US Pharmacopoeia in 1942? harmful, addictive, and cause psychosis, mental deterioration, and violent behavior
What is the major psychoactive chemical in weed? Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. Concentration of THC varies from how the hemp is grown (temp, sunlight, soil moisture, fertility) THC levels can be as high at 7%.
What is hash? dried and pressed flowers and resin of the plant, THC concentrations can be as high as 12%
How does THC work? When inhaled THC passes through lungs into bloodstream-->carries chemical to organs-->in the brain THC connects to cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells-->THC leaves body through metabolism and uptake into the tissue
Where are cannabinoid receptors found? Parts of brain that influence pleasure, memory, thought, concentration, sensory and time perception and coordinated movement.
How long is weed in the body? a single dose can take up to 30 days for complete elimination.
Short term effects of marijuana problems w/ memory and learning, distorted perception, difficulty in thinking and problem solving, loss of coordination, decreased blood pressure, and increased heart rate
Medical Marijuana nausea, glaucoma, pain management, and appetite stimulation (Leukemia and AIDS)
Marijuana Most commonly used illicit drug Mixture of dried leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of hemp plant Cannabis Sativa Use dates back to time of Chinese Emperor Shen Nung (Ca. 2737 BCE)
Why did Chinese Emperor Shen Nung use Marijuana? Treatment of malaria, gas pains and absentmindedness
Hemp Cannabis sativa. Fiber is most well known product Hemp means the rope or twine made from the hemp plant
Where is the psychoactive drug in Cannabis sativa located? Leaves and flowers of the hemp plant. so you can't get high from smoking hemp rope or wearing clothing woven from hemp fibers
1937 Marijuana Tax Cut prohibited use as an intoxicant and its medical use was regulated as national concern of its use emerged. Act required anyone producing, distributing, or using marijuana for medical purposes to register and pay a tax. Made it expensive and inconvenient.
Why was marijuana removed form the US Pharmacopoeia in 1942? harmful, addictive, and cause psychosis, mental deterioration, and violent behavior
What is the major psychoactive chemical in weed? Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. Concentration of THC varies from how the hemp is grown (temp, sunlight, soil moisture, fertility) THC levels can be as high at 7%.
What is hash? dried and pressed flowers and resin of the plant, THC concentrations can be as high as 12%
How does THC work? When inhaled THC passes through lungs into bloodstream-->carries chemical to organs-->in the brain THC connects to cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells-->THC leaves body through metabolism and uptake into the tissue
Where are cannabinoid receptors found? Parts of brain that influence pleasure, memory, thought, concentration, sensory and time perception and coordinated movement.
How long is weed in the body? a single dose can take up to 30 days for complete elimination.
Short term effects of marijuana problems w/ memory and learning, distorted perception, difficulty in thinking and problem solving, loss of coordination, decreased blood pressure, and increased heart rate
Medical Marijuana nausea, glaucoma, pain management, and appetite stimulation (Leukemia and AIDS)
OxyCotin Oxycodone Hydrochloride, morphine-like narcotic. Tablets contain up to 80 mg of oxycodone with a time release. Percocet and Percodan contain same chemical but in small amounts (5-7.5 mg)
How can you get around the time release mechanism of OxyCotin? crushing the tablet and either snorting it or dissolving it in water and injecting the solution. Effect is similar to that of using heroin.
Where did Oxycotin problem first start? Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maine "hillbilly heroin" and "poor man's heroin" March 2002 18 year old female was first UK to die from Oxycotin
Most powerful form of Oxycotin 160 mg form of the drug
Opiates Morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone (Vicodin, Lortab, and Lorcet)
Papaver Somniferum The opium poppy. Morphine and codeine are extracted from this.
How to opiates work? Drugs bind to chemical receptors (Mu) that interrupts the transmission of pain in the spinal cord. Also stimulate areas of brain involved in pleasure (reward or endorphin pathways) Stimulates higher levels of dopamine. Releases higher level of dopamine
What are the main concerns for taking an herbal remedy vs. prescription or OTC medication? Herbal are loosely regulated and unlike OTC medications they don't require many aspects of manufacturing to be reviewed and submitted to the FDA
Generic vs. Brand name drugs Know the active ingredient is the same but the delivery method, coatings, binders etc may vary
Generic Drug chemically equivalent to the pioneer drug, but cannot be marketed until the patent protection on the pioneer drug has run out after 20 years.
Pioneer drug First version of a drug, marked as the brand name (ex: Xanax)
Drug Price Competition and Patent Restoration Act 1984 Greatly expanded the number of drugs eligible for generic status. Act eliminated the need for generics to duplicate the efficacy and safety testing don on counterpart pioneer drugs. Saves drug manufacturers time and money.
How much do nonprescription medications account for in the US? 60%, more than 80 therapeutic (acne to weight control)
Drug Testing About 8-10 years $500 million -Lab &Animal 1-2 years -Clinical Phase I Study- 1 years starts on humans Phase II- 2 years; Phase III- 3 years
Drug testing approval process FDA review 2-3 years (only 1 in 10,000 get approved) the process is NOT 100% foolproof.
How long does a patent last for drugs? 20 years
How long does it take for FDA to approve a drug? about 10 years
Depressant Diminishes a body function/activity -Makes person feel relaxed, sleepy, slows person down, sometimes used after abusing stimulants EX: alcohol, weed, opiates, heroin, morphine, codeine
Stimulant Amplifies a body function or activity, speeds up the body and brain EX: amphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, caffeine adderall
Narcotic Relieves pain by depressing CNS action. Makes person less aware, alert, feel carefree. EX: opiates: oxycotin (oxycodone) Lortabs (hydrocodone), heroin, morphine, codeine
Narcotic as hollywood-ised version Means any sort of illegal drug. DO NOT CLASS ANY DRUG AS A NARCOTIC UNLESS IT DEPRESSES THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Tranquilizer/ sedative relieves anxiety Calms nervousness, irritability, excitement: depresses central nervous action: cause sluggishness reduced mental activity EX: Xanax, Valium
Hallucinogen Causes visions EX: LSD, mescaline, weed
Starch and cellulose are... made from monomers with the same number and type of atoms, which differ in only one slight spatial detail
If a typical adult consumed about 2000 calories everyday but only at burgers and drank soda they would be..... malnourished
Malnourished caused by a diet lacking in proper nutrients every though the energy content of the food may be adequate
Undernourished condition in which a persons daily caloric intake is insufficient to meet metabolic needs
Cloning was first done with frogs
cloning was secondly done with mice then sheep
cloning was third done with calves
cloning was fourth done with monkey
Cholesterol is a ...... lipid
Created by: averyhurst1