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# Physics A

### Formulas

What is the formula for internal energy? And the first law of thermodynamics? dU = Q + W
What is internal energy equal to? dEth + dEbond + dEatomic + dEnuclear
What is the formula for entropy, not at constant pressure? H = U + PV
What is the formula for change in entropy at constant pressure? dH = Q
What is the exact formula for work? Approximate formula for work? W = -der PdV or W = appx Pavg dV (at constant pressure)
What is the formula to calculate Q when there is no phase change? Q = deriv CdT or appx: CdT
What is the equation for the ideal gas laws? PV = nRT
What does Q represent? Q = Ebond + Etherm
What is the formula for entropy when the number of microstates is known? S = kb lnOmega
What is the entropy for the system? dS = Q/T
What is the formula for heat capacity? C = Q/dT
What is the formula for the heat capacity at constant volume? Cv = dEth/dT (if Q = Etherm)
What is the formula for the heat capacity at constant pressure and in the ideal gas model? Cp = Cv + R
What is the formula to calculate Etherm for a specific phase or number of molecules? Etherm = (#modes/molecule)(1/2) nRT
What is the formula for Etherm when the number of modes is known? Etherm/mode = (1/2)(Kb) T
What is the formula for Etherm when the number of moles is known? Etherm/mole = Na (#modes/molecule) (1/2)(Kb)T
What is the formula to calculate Etherm for a particular substance? Etherm = CdT
How do you calculate Ebond? Either add all the Ebond numbers together or refer to the PE on the pair wise graph
How do you calculate Ebond during a phase change? abs val Ebond = abs val (dMdHmelt) or abs val (dMdHvap)
What is the formula to calculate the change in kinetic energy? dKE = (1/2)m dV^2
What is the formula to calculate the change in gravitational potential energy? dPEgrav = mgdy
What is the formula to calculate the change in spring potential energy? dPEspring = (1/2)k dx^2
What number is represented by Na? Avogadro's number
What number is Kb represented by? 1.38 x 10^-23 J/K
What number is R represented by? Na x Kb = 8.31 J/Kxmol
How much does the mass change during a phase change? dm = Q/dH
How much does the temperature change during a phase change? dT = Q/dH
How do you calculate the kinetic energy of a spring mass? KEsping-mass = (1/2)mv^2
How do you calculate the potential eneryg of a spring mass? PEspring-mass = (1/2)ky^2
How do you calculate the magnitude of the attractive or repelling forces between two adams? Think pair-wise absval F = absval d(PE)/dr
How do you calculate the intermolecular Ebond between adams? -(total number of n-n pairs) x epsilon
How do you calculate the Etherm total? (total number of active modes) x (1/2)KbT
In a closed system what is the Entropy? dS is greater than or equal to 0
How do you calculate the number of modes? Estimate the number of modes then the formula is (#modes/atom)(#atoms)
Created by: 24rory