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Chemical Bonding

bonding ~ always involves the valance e- ~elemnents bond to become stable. ~simultaneous attraction or an e- to two nuclei
energy changes in bonding ~forming a bond releases energy. ~to break a bond energy must be absorbed ~potential energy is stored in a bond.
ionic bond ~tranfer of energy ~electroneg. difference is larger. ~occurs between a metal and nonmetal.
covalent bond ~sharemof energy ~electroneg. difference is smaller ~occurs between a nonmetal and nonmetal.
metallic bond ~"sea of mobile e-" (moving) ~occurs in PURE METALS.
molecules and compounds ~only atoms held by covalent bonds are called molecules. ~compounds can be either ionic or covalent bonds.
polar covalent bond ~unequal sharing of electrons because one element has a higher electron than the other. ~occurs between nonmetals.
non polar covalent bonding ~equal sharing or electrons because this bond is between same atoms-(diatomics) ~ Br2, I2, N2, Cl2, H2, O2, F2
ionic configuration STEPS: 1.how the electron config. for an ion. 2. place the e- config. in brackets and give charge. 3. atoms form ions to get a noble gas config. ( >5 atomic #5 get an octet )
polyatomic ions (see Table E in Ref. T.)
ionic character is measured by calculating the electroneg. difference. (ignore subscripts, subtract to get the highest number. the higher the e- difference, the more ionic the character)
dot diagrams for ionic compounds ~Begin with e- dot diagrams for the elements in a compound. ~show electron TRANSFER with arrow, show resulting change. ~use many of each atom as needed so stable octet (or duet) is achieved.
structural formulas for covalent molecules (non metals only) ~show the shape of the molecule. ~use a dash to equal one bond (1 pair of shared elecrons). ~how many bonds does each member of groups 14,15,16, and 17 make?
molecular shape (non metals only) bent, pyramidal, tetrahedral, linear.
dot diagram for covalent molecules ~begin with a structural formula for the molecule. ~replace each dash with a dot and X to indicate a pair of shared electrons. ~check to see that each element in the molecule has an octet (or duet, for atomic numbers 1-5)
distributing molecular charge (non metals only) ~draw the structural formula for the molecule. ~take each bond between atoms one at a time. ~the element with the higher electroneg. gets a neg. charge, and the element with the lower electroneg. gets a pos. charge.
polar molecules polar MOLECULES have opposite charges at the ends of asymmetry of charge.
S.N.A.P. symmetrical-nonpolar, asymmetrical-polar
Created by: cordovac