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Chapter 4 Science

Section 1,3,4- 2012

Rutherford - Developed the Atom model with a nucleus with thre protons, three neutrons and has electrons randomly circling it.
Dalton - Developed the Atom model with a solid nucleus
Bohr - Developed the Atom model with a nucleus with three protons, three neutrons, with electrons orbiting it.
Thompson - Developed the Atom model with a field of protons, with electrons scattered through it.
Nucleus - the very small center core of an atom.
Proton - the particle of an atom with a positive charge
Neutron - Discovered by James Chadwick in 1932, it is the neutrally charged particle of an atom.
electron - the particle of an atom that moves rapidly in the space outside the nucleus. It is negatively charged.
atomic number - the number of Protons in the nucleus of an atom
isotopes - an atom with the same number of Protons as the atomic number but different number of Neutrons
mass number - the total number of protons and neiutrons in a nucleus
energy level - the fixed amount of energy that an atom can have.
Physical Properties of metals - shininess, malleability, ductility, and Conductivity. - malleable means it can be hammared or pressed into other shapes - Ductility means it can be drawn out into a thin wire - Conductivity means the metal can transfer the heat of electricity.
Chemical Properties of metals - The two chemical properties are reactivity and Corrosion. - reactivity is how fast it combines or reacts with another element.
Alkali metals - These metals react with each other by losing one electron. - They are so reactive, they are never found uncombined (in componds) - the two most important are sodium and potassium.
Alkaline Earth metals - React by losing two electrons - fairly hard - grey/white - good conductors of electricity - never found uncombined in nature - the two most important are magnesium and Calcium - this is group 2
Transition metals - groups 3-12 - Hard, shiny - These make colorful compounds - good conductors of electrictiy - less reactive than groups 1,2 -Ex. Copper, iron, gold, silver
Lanthanides - Soft, shiny, malleable, high conductivity - Mix with common metals to make alloys
Actinides - Only Actinium, Thorium, Protactinium, and Uranium are found on earth - The other elemetns are created but their nuclei only last a fraction of a second before they burst into smaller nuclei.
Synthetic elements - Synthetic elementes are created by smashing nuclear parts. -Synthetic elements have an atomic number above 92 - To make elements with atomic numbers above 95 particle accelorators are used that smash elements to form one nuclei. This is synthesizing.
Alloys - A mixture of a metal and another element, usually another metal
Physical properties of Nonmetals - Nonmetals are dull, shiny, and brittle. - They are not malleable or Ductile. - They are poor conductors of electricity.
Chemical Properties of Nonmetals - Most nonmetals are reactive, so they easily form compounds - nonmetals gain electrons when they react. - They can group together to form molecules.
The Carbon family (nonmetals) - reacts with four electrons - This is found in all living things -
The Nitrogen Family (nonmetals) - Group 15 - usually react with three electrons - Diatomic form, meaning it has two atoms - Phosphorus and nitrogen
The Oxygen family (nonmetals) - usually react with two electrons - Diatomic molecule - reacts with almost everything. - sometimes forms a triatomic molecule that makes Ozone.
The Halogen family - group 17 - means salt forming - usually reacts with one electron. - very reactive and dangerous - Chlorine kills bacteria in water suply Fluorine helps prevent tooth decay.
The Nobel gases - group 18 - Nobel gases don't react with anything becsaue their octet of electrons is full. - This exsists in the earth's atmosphere in small amounts.
Hydrogen - Each hydrogen atom has one electron and one proton. - some have neutrons - rarely found on Earth - pure element
The metalloids - Seven metalloids - yellow on the periodic table - brittle, hard, semiconductors. - conduct electricity under certain conditions. - most common is Silicon.
Alpha decay - two protons, two neutrons - the release of an alpha particle decreases the atomic number by two, and the mass by four
Beta decay - A beta particle is a fast moving electron given off by a nucleus during radioactive decay
Gamma radiation - Gamma radiation consists of high energy waves and has no charge. - does not change anything.
Created by: Lou399