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through chapter 9

Matter is anything that takes up space and has WEIGHT false, mass
Chemistry is the study of MASS and the changes it undergoes false, matter
To measure distance in Si units, you would most likely use the LITER false,meter
The SI base unit of temperature is DEGREES CELSIUS false, Kalvin
The prefix deci indicates a LARGER number than the prefix centi true
Dime: dollar :: DECILITER : liter true
The number 8,624,000 in scientific notation is equal to 8.624 x 10^5 false, 8.624 x 10^6
On a line graph, a linear relationship between the dependent and independent variables is also called a(n) INDIRECT relationship false, direct
In an answer that has four sig. figures TWO ARE ESTIMATED AND TWO ARE KNOWN false, one is estimated and three are known
Why is the ozone important to life on earth? Ozone absorbs much ultraviolet radiation from the Sun
What is mass? the amount of matter in an object
An object has a mass of 126 kg on Earth. What is this object's mass on the moon? 126 kg
The branch of chemistry that focuses on carbon containing chemicals is called...
Any substance with a definite composition chemical
What is a scientific theory? an explanation supported by many experiments
A visual, verbal, or mathematical explanation of how things occur model
A systematic approach used in all scientific study scientific method
Why should chemicals be removed from stick containers in small amounts? it helps to avoid removing more of a chemical than is needed
The practical use of scientific research technology
Density is often written in which units? g/cm^3
If you know an object's density, what other variable do you need to know in order to calculate its mass? volume
The prefix equivalent to 1/1000? milli
The prefix equivalent to 10^9? giga
Refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another precision
A ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in different units conversion factor
A means of expressing numbers as a multiple of two factors: a number between 1 and 10; and ten raised to a power, or exponent scientific notation
379,000,000 in scientific notation? 3.79 x 10^8 (blank)
A unit in a system of measurement is defined by combining base units derived unit
To evaluate the accuracy of experimental data, you can calculate the difference between... an experimental value and an accepted value
Refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value accuracy
A method of problem solving that focuses on the units used to describe matter, often using conversion factors dimensional analysis
A substance's color is an EXTENSIVE physical property false, intensive
The particles of matter in a SOLID are tightly packed together true
Breaking a stick in half is an example of PHYSICAL change true
Burning toast is an example of a PHYSICAL change false, chemical
According to the law of the conservation of mass, ENERGY is neither destroyed nor created false, matter
A mixture can be separated by PHYSICAL means true
If you look closely at a HOMOGENEOUS mixture, you will find distinct components false, heterogeneous
A form of matter with a constant volume that takes the shape of its container liquid
States that mass is neither created nor destroyed in any process law of the conservation of mass
A separtion technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles from a solution crystallization
A technique that separates the components of a mixture chromatography
States the regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass law of definite proportions
States that the different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of another element to form different compounds law of multiple proportions
The grid organizing elements into periods and groups periodic table
The ratio of mass to the total mass of the compound percent by mass
DEMOCRITUS proposed that matter is composed of empty space through which atoms move true
DALTON'S original atomic theory incorrectly stated that atoms cannot be divided into smaller particales true
An atom is the smallest particle of a COMPOUND that still has the properties of that COMPOUND false, element
Most of an atom's mass is due to its protons and ELECTRONS false, neutrons
NEUTRONS have no electrical charge true
Potassium's three, naturally occuring isotopes can have 20, 21, or 22 PROTONS false, neutrons
An alpha particle consists of two protons and two ELECTRONS false, neutrons
The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element atom
States that all matter is composed of atoms Dalton's atomic theory
Which subatomic particle has a negative charge? electron
The centermost part of an atom where the protons and neutrons are contained nucleus
Atoms with the same # of protons but different numbers of neutrons isotopes
The weighted average mass of an elements isotopes atomic mass
Equal to 1/12 of the mass of a carbon12 atom atomic mass unit
ALL WAVES are characterized by wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and speed true
Electromagnetic radiation DOES NOT INCLUDE visible light from the sun, microwaves, X rays, and radio waves false, does include
A wave's FREQUENCY is measured in hertz true
The set of frequencies of the elctromagnetic waves emitted by the atoms of an element atomic emission spectrum
A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space electromagnetic radiation
The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave wavelength
A particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy photon
Relates the wavelength, frequency, and speed of an electromagnetic wave c=wavelength?n
What is the lowest allowable energy state of an atom called? ground state
A three dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron's probable location
Energy relationship developed by Planck E=hv
The modern periodic table arranges the elements in order of increasing ATOMIC MASS F, atomic number
The row of elements in the periodic table is called a GROUP F, periods
Elements in a column of the periodic table have similar properties because they have the same number of VALENCE ELECTRONS true
An element with the electron config. [He] 2s^2 2p^3is found in the S BLOCK
The ionic radii of the elemtns generally INCREASES as one moves down a column of the periodic table true
The first ionization energy generally DECREASES as you move down a column of the periodic table true
Most of the elements in groups 16 17 are classified as
Statement that when the elements are arranged by increasing atomic number there is a periodic repition of their chemical and physical properties periodic law
Group 1 elements (except for hydrogen) alkali metals
A column in the periodic table group
Group 17 elements halogens
How many electrons does an atom generally need in its outer level to be the most stable? 8
Atom or bonded group that has a positive or negative charge ion
Energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom ionization energy
Statement that atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons octet rule
Indication of an atom's ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond electronegativity
The most common isotope of hydrogen is HYDROGEN2 False, protium
For NONMETALS, the reactivity decreases as the atomic number increase true
Of the first two groups in the periodic table, the ALKALI METALS are generally more reactive true
Boron is an example of a METAL F, metalloid
For transition metals, the greater the number of UNPAIRED electrons in the d sublevel, the greater is the metal's hardness and its boiling point true
The elements hydrogen is considered to be... in a group of its own
What is a characteristic common to all alkali metals? they readily react with water to form alkaline solutions
Alkaline earth metlas form ions with a... +2 charge
Used to make lightweight alloys for airplanes magnesium
The most reactive of all the elements is the halogen fluorine
What is the cahrge on the most common ion of the elements in group 13? 3+
Diamond and graphite... are allotropes
Which group of elements are the most importnat for living organisms carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen
An element or inorganic compound that is found in nature as solid crystals mineral
Material from which a mineral can be removed at a reasonable cost ore
The branch of chemistry that deals with all non organic compounds
Forms of an element in the same state with different structures and properties allotrope
Used in cleaning products and fertilizers phosphorus
Used in many storage batteries lead
Used in the manufacture of lightbulbs argon
Used to strengthen teeth fluorine
For a transition metal, a change in ionic charge is often accompanied by an increase in reactivity
In general, the last electron of an inner transition metal enters an f sublevel
When a substance's valence electrons are slightly attracted to a magnetic field, the substance displats paramagnetism
Elements with a higher atomic number than uranium are not found in nature
A mixture of two or more elements with at least one of the elements being a metal alloy
Property of a substance whose ions all align in the direction of a magnetic field ferromagnetism
A cation is a NEGATIVELY charged particle F, positively
The force that holds two atoms together is called a CHEMICAL BOND true
To form a negative ion, a neutral atom must LOSE electrons F, gain
When ionic compounds from positive and negative ions is almost always ENDOTHERMIC F, exothermic
The simplest ratio of the ions represented in an ionic compound is called a FORMULA UNIT true
A sulfate ion contains FEWER oxygen atoms than a sulfite ion does F, more
In naming a monatomic anion, the suffix IDE is used true
Delocalized valence electrons are typical of IONIC COMPOUNDS F, metallic compounds
When a metal reacts with a nonmetal, the metal tends to GAIN electrons F, lose
The reactivity of an elements depends mainly on the number of valence electrons
What is the electron config. for the noble gases other than helium ns^2np^6
The force that holds two atoms together chemical bond
A positively charged ion cation
A negatively charged ion anion
An ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts electricity electrolyte
The name for most ionic compounds other than oxides salts
The energy needed to separate the ions of an ionic compound lattice energy
The anion that has the formula CLO is called the hypochlorite ion
Where does a subscript that indicates the number of atoms appear, relative to a chemical symbol in a formula? to the lower right
For a monatomic ion, is equal to the charge oxidation number
A charged particle containing more than one atom polyatomic ion
When a double covalent bond is formed, TWO electrons are shared F, four
In a PI bond, electrons are shared in an area cenetered between the two bonding atoms F, sigma
In naming a binary compound, the prefix used to indicate the presence of four atoms of a given kind is QUADRI false, tetra
Hydrochloric acid is an example of a(n) OXYACID false, binary acid
In a chemical name the prefix used to indicate the presence of two atoms of a given kind is BI F, di
The prefix HYDRO is used in naming binary acids true
The oxyacid suffix for an acid that contains an anion ending in ate is IC true
In the carbon dioxide molecule, the central atom is a CARBON atom true
In the compound BH3, the boron atom has MORE than an octet of electrons F, less
The VSEPR model is used to determine the SIZE of a molecule F, shape(structure)
The VSEPR model is based on the idea that in a molecule, NUCLEI repel each other as much as possible F, electrons
According to the octet rule, most atoms that bond covalently achieve the electron config. of a noble gas
In the formation of a covalent bond, electrons are shared
Four electrons are shared in a double covalent bond
How many pi bonds are there in a triple bond? two
Any bond in which there is electron sharing covalent bond
The particle formed when two or more atoms bond covalently molecule
Reactions that occur when more energy is released forming new bonds than is required to break bonds in the initial reactants exothermic
A kind of bond formed by overlap of parallel orbitals pi bond
Any acidic compound that contains oxygen oxyacid
A model that shows how the atoms are arranged in a molecle structural formula
A condition that occurs when more than one valid Lewis structure can be drawn for a molecule resonance
The creation of a set of new, identical orbitals by the rearrangement of valence electrons within an aomtis called hybridizatioon
The tendency of an atom in a compound to attract electrons electronegativity
A kind of bond in which there is unequal sharing of electrons polar covalent
Created by: raseaman