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RT 20 Final 2014

CH's 2-6 part of 7 to Pg128

The strength of attachment of an electron to the nucleus electron binding energy
An x-ray photon is a quantum of electromagnetic energy
is one half the range from crest to valley over which the sine wave varies amplitude
the number of wavelengths that pass a point of observation per second Frequency
the properties of electromagnetic energy include frequency, wavelength, velocity, and amplitude.
the reduction in intensity htat results from scattering and absorption attenuation
structures that absorb x-rays are called radiopaque
structures that transmit x-rays are called radiolucent
the study of stationary electric charges electrostatics
the quantity of matter as described by its energy equivalence Mass (Kg)
the ability to do work energy
energy is measured in Joules (j)
In radiology, the Unit or energy is oftened used is known as Electron Volt (eV)
Theory first described by Einsten that matter and energy are interchangeable Theory of Relativity
energy emitted and transferred through space radiation
Natural environmental radiation annual dose 3 mSv
currently accepted approx. annual dose resulting from medical applications of ionizing radiation is 3.2 mSv
X-rays accidentally discovered by Wilhem Roentgen on Nov. 8, 1895
roentgen discovered x-rays by while experimenting with a type of crookes tube while trying to visualize cathode rays.
3 general types of x-ray exams Radiography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography.
to provide an x-ray beam that is satisfactory for imaging,you must supply an x-ray tube with a high voltage and an electric current
x-ray voltages measure in kilovolt peak kVp
the first recorded death from x-ray in 1904 was thomas edisons research assistant clarence Dally.
one unit of negative electric charge, fixed orbits, and atomic mass number is 0 electron
one unit of positive electric chargem atomic mass number is 1 proton
carries no charge, atomic mass number is 1 neutron
unstable atoms that have an unstable nucleus that spontaneously emits particles and energy ans transforms itself into another atom in the process radioactive decay
2 ways for radioisotopes to decay are by beta (more frequent) and alpha emissions.
the time for a quanitity of radioactivity to be reduced to one half its original value is radioactive half life
radioactive material never quite reaches 0
x-rays and gamma rays are called_____ and have no_____or______ photons, charge or mass.
travel at the speed of light and are considered enery disturbances in space. photons
only difference between x-rays and gamma rays is thier origin
electromagnetic energy exists over a wide range called an energy continuum
speed and direction in which an object moves. velocity
the energy of a photon is ______ perportional to its frequancy directly
unlike charges_____: like charges______ attract,repel
law that states when force is strong close together and decreases rapidly when separates coulomb's law
electric charge is distributed______ throughout a surface. uniformly
electric charge of a conductor is concentrated along sharpest curvature of the surface
the study of electric charges in motion electrodynamics
any substance in which electrons flow easily conductor
any material that does not allow electron flow insulator
materials that under some conditions act as an insulator and in other conditions act as a conductor semiconductor
the property of some materials such as titanium to exibit no resistance to electron flow below a critical temperature superconductor
the three principal parts of an x-ray imaging system x-ray tube, operating console, and high voltage generator
refers to the number of x-rays or the intensity of the x-ray beam radiation guantity (mGya)
refers to the penatrability of the x-ray beam and is expressed in Kilovolt peak or more precisely, HVL Radiation quality
measures he voltage provided to the x-ray imaging system and adjusts that voltage to precisely 220 V. Line Compensator
has a single winding and is designed to supply a precise voltage to the filament circuit and to the high-voltage circuit of the x-ray imaging system. Autotransformer
Determines the quality of the x-ray beam kVp
the x-ray tube current crossing from cathode to anode is measured in milliamperes mA
the number of electrons emitted bt the filament is determined by the temperature of the filament
the filament temperature is controlled by the filament current
is the release of electrons from a heated filament thermionic emission
guards against exessive radiation exposure and electric shock, mechanical support, and rough handling protective housing
x ray that escape through the protective housing are called leakage radiation
when x-rays are produced they are emitted isotropically, that is they are emitted with equal intensity in all directions
_____or_____ ______ matiains a vacuum inside the tube that alows for more efficient x-ray production and longer tube life glass or metal enclosure
the negative side of the x-ray tube cathode
two primary parts of the cathode are filament and focusing cup
a coil of wire approx 2mm in diameter and 1 to 2 cm long usually made of tungsten filament
the most common cause for tube failure is tungsten vaporization with deposition on the inside of the glass enclosure.
is negatively charged so that it electrostatically congines the electron beam to a small area of the anode, where the filament is embedded focusing cup
a cloud of electrons formed around the filament that makes it difficult for subsequent electrons to be emitted bt teh filament, space charge
the positive side of the x ray tube, conducts electricity, radiates heat, and contains the target anode
atomic number of tungsten is 74
the atomic number of molybdenum 42
the atomic number of rhodium 45
results in a an effective focal spot size being much less than the actual focal spot size line focus principle
results in a smaller effective focal spot and less radiation intensity on the anode side of the x-ray beam heel affect
The most frequent cause of abrubt tube failure is electrons arcing from the filament to the enclosure because of vaporized tungsten.
energy in motion kinetic energy
electrons travel from cathode to anode
electrons traveling from cathode to anode constitute the x-ray tube current and are sometimes called projectile electrons
approximately 99% of the kinetic energy of projectile electrons is converted to heat
approximately 1% of the projectile electron kinetic energy is used for x-ray production
in the diagnostic range, heat production increases directly with increasing kVp
the production of heat in the anode increases directly with increasing x-ray tube current
if the projectile electron interacts with an inner shell electron of the target atom rather than an outer shell electron characteristic x-rays can be produced
are emitted when an outer shell electron fills and inner shell void charactaristic x-rays
only the ____ charactaristic x-rays of tungsten are useful for imaging K
produced when a projectile electron is slowed bt the nuclear field of a target atom nucleus bremsstrahlung x-rays
in the diagnostic range, most x-rays are bremstrahlung x-rays
bremsstralung x-rays have a range of energies and form a continuous emission spectrum
max x-ray energy is associated with the minimum x-ray wavelength
A change in mA or mAs results in a proportional change in the_______ of the xray emission spectrum amplitude
how does filtration effect the emission spectrum? Decreases amplitude shifts to right
if filter thickness is reduced, x ray is increased
changes in ________ result in Directly proportional changes in the amplitude of the emission MA/time
efficiancy of x-ray production increases as_____ increases kvp
Created by: 1820547421