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Chem - Chap 8

Section 2 - Types of Chemical Reaction

a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound Synthesis Reaction
a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances decomposition reaction
the process in which an electric current is used to produce a chemical reaction, such as the decomposition of water Electrolysis
a reaction in which one element or radical takes the place of another element or radical in a compound single-displacement reaction
the oxidation reaction of an organic compound, in which energy as heat is released combustion Reaction
five basic types of reactions synthesis,decomposition, single-displacement, double-displacement, and combustion reactions
One simple type of synthesis reaction is the combination of an element with oxygen to produce an oxide of the element
Most metals react with the Group 17 elements, the halogens, to form ionic or covalent compounds
Group 1 metals react with halogens to form ionic compounds with the formula MX, where M is the metal and X is the halogen
Group 2 metals react with the halogens to form ionic compounds with formula MX2.
is so reactive that it combines with almost all metals Fluorine
can be used to neutralize hydrochloric acid in your stomach Calcium hydroxide
Oxides of active metals react with water to produce metal hydroxides
highly reactive metals Active metals
known as lime or quicklime Calcium oxide, CaO
The addition of water to lime produce Ca(OH)2,which is also known as slaked lime
one of the main ingredients in acid rain sulfurous acid further reacts with oxygen to form sulfuric acid
metal oxides and nonmetal oxides react with each other in synthesis reactions to form salts
Decomposition reactions are the opposite of synthesis reactions
Decomposition reactions are represented by this equation AX --> A + X
Most decomposition reactions take place only when energy is in what form electricity or heat is added
The simplest kind of decomposition reaction is the decomposition of a binary compound into its elements
Who discovered oxygen through such a decomposition reaction in 1774, when he heated mercury(II) oxide to produce mercury and oxygen Joseph Priestley
When mercury(II) oxide (the red-orange substance in the bottom of the test tube) is heated, it decomposes into oxygen and metallic mercury
When a metal carbonate is heated, it breaks down to produce metal chloride and oxygen
All metal hydroxides except those containing Group 1 metals decompose when heated to yield metal oxides and water
When a metal chlorate is heated, it decomposes to produce a metal chloride and oxygen
Certain acids decompose into nonmetal oxides and water
Carbonic acid is unstable and decomposes readily at room temperature to produce carbon dioxide and water
heated, sulfuric acid decomposes into sulfur trioxide and water
Single-displacement reactions can be represented by the following general equations. A + BX --> AX + B or Y + BX --> BY + X
When solid aluminum is placed in aqueous lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2(aq), the aluminum replaces the lead and forms Solid lead and aqueous aluminum nitrate
The most-active metals, such as those in Group 1, react vigorously with water to produce metal hydroxides and hydrogen
Less-active metals, such as iron, react with steam to form a metal oxide and hydrogen gas.
The most combine active halogen Fluorine
in Group 17 each element can replace any element below it,but not any element above it
One of the compounds formed by a double displacement reactions is usually a precipitate, an insoluble gas that bubbles out of the solution, or a molecular compound, usually water
The formation of a precipitate occurs when the cations of one reactant combine with the anions of another reactant to form an insoluble or slightly soluble compound.
examples of combustion reactions The burning of natural gas, propane, gasoline, and wood
Created by: tbstinso