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JPH Dec Chemistry

Chemistry December 100 definitions

Scientific Method A systemic approach to the solution of a scientific problem.
Hypothesis An educated guess
theory Statements or principles that have been explained and repeatedly tested.
scientific law A statement based on repeated experimental observation.
atom The smallest part of a chemical element.
Element any material that can't be broken down. Consists of one type of atom.
compound two or more elements bonded
matter a solid, liquid or gas.
molecule The smallest particle of two or more atoms bonded together.
electrolysis a process that uses electricity to cause a chemical change.
chemical formula the exact composition of a compound.
diatomic molecule a molecule that consits of two atoms
Law of Conservation of Mass The total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products.
atomic symbol one or more letters that represent each element in the periodic table.
observation information you get through your senses.
qualitative the quality of something
solid one of the states of matter in which the volume and shape are fixed.
liquid one of the states of matter that takes on the shape of its container.
gas one of the states of matter in which there is no fixed shape or volume
temperature how hot or cold something is.
kinetic energy energy available because of motion
kinetic molecular theory a theory that says all molecules and atoms are always moving
normal melting point the temperature at which a substance goes from a solid to a liquid
normal freezing point the temperature at which a substance goes from a liquid to a solid
potential energy result of its position in an electric, magnetic, or gravitational field.
normal boiling point the temperature at which a liquid's vapor pressure is equal to one atmosphere.
vaporization the conversion of a liquid to a gas or a vapor.
sublimation the conversion of a solid into a gas.
condensation change from a gas to a liquid
evaporation vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling.
heating curve a graph showing how the substance's phases change while being heated
pure substance it can't be separated chemically or physically.
solution consists of solutes dissolved in a solvent
solute dissolved particles in a solution
solvent the dissolving medium in a solution
mixture a blend of two or more substances
physical property the quality or condition of a substance
malleability a physical property of matter
composite made from several different substances
quantitative the quantity of something
mass the amount of matter that an object takes up
volume the amount of space an object takes up
density the ratio of mass of an object to its volume
precision describes the closeness
accuracy the closeness of a measurement to the true value of what is being measured
significant digit all the digits that can be known precisely in a measurement
uncertainty predictions of future events
measurement a description that includes both a number and a unit
intensive property a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample
extensive property a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample
metal one class of elements
nonmetal an element that is a poor conducter
conductivity the ability to conduct electricity
ductility material's ability to defurm stress
oxidation a process that involves complete or partial loss of electrons
metalloid has properties that are similar to metals and nonmetals
alloy a mixture compound of two or more elements
electron a negatively charged subatomic particle
nucleus the tiny dense central portion of an atom
ion an atom that has a positive or negative charge
organic compound the study of compounds containing carbon
inorganic compound the study of compounds not containing carbon
hydrocarbon an organic compound composed of hydrogen and carbon
combustion reaction a chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts
homogeneous a mixture that is uniform in composition
heterogeneous a mixture that is not uniform in composition
product a substance produced in a chemical reaction
precipitate a solid that forms from a liquid
reactant a substance present at the start of a reaction
chemical reaction a change in which one or more reactants change into one or more products
saturated solution at the max
supersaturated solution over the max
concentration a measurement of the amount of solute
mole the amount of a substance
molarity the concentration of solute in a solution
dilution reducing the concentration of a chemical
acid-base indicator a substance that indicates the degree of acidity
electrolyte a compound that conducts electricity
molecular compound a compound that is made of molecules
covalent bond the sharing of electrons
nonelectrolyte a compound that doesn't conduct electricity
cation any atom with a positive charge
anion any atom with a negative charge
polyatomic ion a tightly bound group of atoms
ionic compound a compound made up of positive and negative ions
synthesis reaction a chemical reaction in which an element or compound reacts with oxygen
decomposition reaction a chemical change in which a single compound is broken down
single replacement reaction a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element
double replacement reaction a chemical change that involves an exchange of positive ions
exothermic reaction a process that releases heat
endothermic reaction a process that absorbs heat
activation energy the minimum energy colliding particles must have
heat a form of energy that transfers
rate of reaction describes the speed of a reaction
catalyst a substance that increases the rate of reactions
acid a compound that produces hydrogen ions
base a compound that produces hydroxide ions
neutralization a chemical reaction where an acid and a base react to form a salt
titration process used to determine the concentration of a solution
pH a number used to denote acidity
Created by: trhale