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Astronomy - Galaxies

galaxies and cosmology

Planck Epoch A mystery partly because we lack a quantum theory of gravity
The Grand Unification Epoch forces except gravity are unified
The Inflationary Epoch Universe expands rapidly smaller than a proton to bigger than a melon -- supported experimentally
Electroweak Epoch Weak and Electromagnetic forces act as one
The Wuark, Hadron, & Lepton Epoch What we think of a "normal" elementary particle form and survive
Photons, Nucleosynthesis, and the Cosmic Background Radiation Atoms form (Hydrogen & Helium) & Cosmic Background radiation 'decouples' from matter
Dark Ages atoms exists but stars don't
Modern Era = Stars form Quantum fluctuations at the time of inflation determines the distribution of matter in the universe. Denser areas are where stars will form. Gravity is the major large scale force
Intestellar Medium Interstellar gas and dust. What new stars are formed of
Is the sun the center of the Milky Way? No
Define Hubble's law the universe is expanded; the more distant an object, the bigger its red shift (similar to Doppler effect)
Halo contains globular clusters, is spherical in shape, contains population 2 stars, and very little interstellar gas and dust
Galactic disk flattened shape, spiral arms, both population 1 & 2 stars, interstellar gas, dust, and population 1 stars associated with spiral arms
Bulge center of the galaxy, football shape, population 2 stars, little gas & dust, supermassive black hole at the center
Shapely method of determining the size and position of the center of the milky way he looked at globular clusters & distance to globular clusters to determine the position of the sun and where the earth was in the milky way; knew that if their size was similar & luminosity; he could estimate the distance;
self propagating star formation for spiral arm formation requires what? supernova explosion
density wave theory for spiral arm formation analogous to a traffic jam
name the major types of galaxies in the Hubble classification scheme Elliptical, spiral/barred spiral, and irregular
What are the properties of the elliptical galaxies? very little gas & dust, no blue stars, primarily population 2 stars
what are the properties of the spiral/barred spiral galaxies? mix of population 1 & 2 stars; disc holds population 1, nucleus holds population 2
what are the properties of the irregular galaxies? have no structure, gas & dust is not along the gas formation, higher percentage of population 1 stars
cluster types rich, poor, local
rich clusters are apart of what? large elliptical galaxies
virgo clusters are also thought of as rich clusters
how many light years across is the milky way? 100,000
how many stars are in the milky way? 200 billion stars
Associated with population 1 stars interstellar gas and dust
if you have very little gas and dust you are associated with population 2 stars
density wave theory for spiral arms do not orbit at the same rate as the stars
self propagating star formation uses the shock waves from supernova explosions to shape the spiral pattern.
characteristics of population one stars contain bright blue stars, tend to be in the disk, contain interstellar gas & dust
characteristics population two stars mainly yellow & red stars, very little surrounding gas & dust
globular clusters in the halo are..? population 2 stars
example of a poor cluster? local group
characteristics of poor clusters tens of galaxies, has a few large spirals and other smaller galaxies scattered around
characteristics of rich cluster large elliptical galaxies, hundreds of thousands of galaxies are involved
Created by: laurenash
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