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The Halogens

Group 7 Trends and such!

Describe the trend in Atomic Radii of The Halogens: Going down the group, the Atomic Radii increases as electrons are in higher energy shells, have more electron shield so the attraction to the nucleus is decreased.
Describe the Trend in Electronegativity of the Halogens: Halogens increase in Electronegativity going up the group with F being the most.
Describe the trends in MP and BP of the Halogens: The BP and MP of the Halogens increases going down the group, this is because there are more electrons and a larger mass in the molecules, so the van der Waals forces increase.
Describe the trend in Oxidation ability of the Halogens: The more electronegative, the stronger the Oxidiser.
Describe the trend in Reducing power of the Halide Ions: Reducing power increases going down the group of Halogens when they are in Ion form. F- being the weakest and I- the strongest.
What is the name of the type of reaction when Cl- is removed by Fl2? A Displacement Reaction.
What would happen and what would be seen if NaBr was reacted with Cl2? Cl would displace the Br and form NaCl, Bromine PP would become visible.
What is seen when NaCl is reacted with Concentrated H2SO4? Steamy fumes of HCl are produced and a Solid NaHSO4 is produced.
What is seen whe NaBr is reacted with Conc H2SO4? Steamy HBr is produced, along with NaHSO4, Bromine PP and Sulfur is reduced to SO4 (+4). Also water is produced.
What is seeen when NaI reacts with H2SO4? HI gas is produced, Iodine Solid is produced, Sulfur is reduced to H2S (+2) which has an egg smell, Water is produced and so is NaHSO4.
Which has the strongest reducing power, NaCL, NaBr or NaI? NaI, as the Iodine Ion is the largest and can lose its electron the easiest.
What is the test to see which Halide Ion is present in a Solution? Treat with dilute HNO3 (Nitric Acid) and then add Silver Nitrate (AgNO3). Observe what is formed to identify which Halide Ion is present.
What occurs when reacting NaF with AgNO3? No PP is formed as Fluorine will dissolve in water.
What occurs when reacting NaCl with AgNO3? AgCl will be formed which is a WHITE Precipitate.
What occurs when reacting NaBr with AgNO3? AgBr will form which is a CREAM coloured Precipitate.
What occurs when reacting NaI with AgNO3? AgI is formed which is a Yellow Precipitate.
How can you further test, after reacting a Sodium Halide with Silver Nitrate, to see which Halide is present? When adding ammonia; AgI will not dissolve, AgCl will dissolve quickly, AgBr will dissolve slower than AgCl.
Why is Nitric Acid added to a Sodium Halide before adding Silver Nitrate? This is to remove any Carbonate (CO3 2-) ions and OH- Ions.
Why can't HCl or H2SO4 be added to treat a Sodium Halide before testing with AgNO3? Because HCl and H2SO4 would both form precipitates.
What is a Disproprotionation reaction? A Reaction in which a specific species is oxidised and reduced to form two different products.
Give an example of a Disproportionation: Cl2 + H2O <--> ClOH + HCl (Chlorine + Water ---> Chloric (I) Acid + Hydrochloric Acid)
Why is Chlorine added to water to make it safer to drink or swim in? Chloric (I) Acid is an oxidising Agent and is able to kill off Bacteria preventing diseases such as Cholera and Typhoid.
What is the reaction of water with Chlorine in sunlight? 2H20 + 2Cl2 <--> 4HCl + O2 Water + Chlorine (+Sunlight) <---> Hydrochloric Acid + Oxygen.
What is Chlorine's reaction with Alkali? Name an Alkali that it is reacted with. Cl2 + 2NaOH ---> NaCl + NaClO + H20. Chlorine + Sodium Hydroxide --> Sodium Chloride + Sodium Chlorate (I) + Water. This is a disproportionation reaction.
What is the reaction of Chlorine with NaOH useful? It forms NaClO (Sodium Chlorate (I)) which is an oxidising agent and a component in Bleach.
What is the name of reaction between Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide to form NaCl + NaClO + H2O?
Created by: mjwilson1988



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