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Unit 2: A-B Test

Redox Reactions Oxidation and Reduction
Oxidation -Lose electrons -Originally, meant the combination of an element with oxygen to form an oxide Ex. Mg : →Mg2+ + 2e-
Reduction -Gain electrons -Ex. : S : : + 2e- → : : S : : 2-
Reducing Agents -opposite of the reducing
Oxidizing Agent -opposite of reducing
Electrometallurgy Electric current supplies electrons
Pyrometallurgy Treating with thermal energy (heat) to provide electrons
Hydrometallurgy Using water with chemicals to gain electrons
Five nonmetals that are gas at RT Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Fluorine, Chlorine
Two liquid elements Bromine, Mercury
protons subatomic particle with a charge of +1
Electrons subatomic particle with a charge of -1
Neutrons subatomic particles with no charge number of neutrons determines the isotope of the element
Isotopes Isotopes are different types of atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
Atomic Number • Always the number of protons the element has • Uniquely identifies the element • Always a whole number
Mass Number • Number of Protons and Neutrons (found in nucleus)…always a whole number.
Atomic Mass (amu) Mass of protons, electrons, and neutrons AVERAGED
metals • Lose electrons more easily that Non-Metals • Have higher melting points than non-metals • Are shiny (lustrous) • React with acids…many also react to copper (II) chloride • Conduct electricity and heat • Malleable/ductile
non metals • Gain electrons easily (anions) • Dull and brittle • Poor conductors of heat and electricity • Lower melting points than metals---also lower densities
metalloids • Physically and chemically between metals and non-metals • Boron (B), Silicon (Si), Germanium (Ge), Arsenic (As), Antimony (Sb), Tellurium (Te), Polonium (Po)
Atmosphere •Layer of gases held by the earth’s gravity •75% of the atmosphere is within 6.8 miles of the earth’s surface •78% is nitrogen (N2), 21% is oxygen (O2), 0.9% argon (Ar), and the rest, trace gasses
Hydrosphere The combined mass of water on, under and over the surface of the earth
Lithosphere The Crust and Upper Mantle Provides greatest variety of chemical resources
Mineral • Naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through geological processes
Ore • Naturally occurring mineral or rock (an aggregate of minerals) with important elements such as metals • Is mined to extract a metal or other material
Decisions about mining at a specific site • Quantity of ore at the site • % of metal in the ore • Type of mining needed to extract the metal from ore • Distance of refining • Supply vs demand • Environmental impact
Created by: Jjfrenchie