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Chapter 9 - Equilibria

Dynamic Equilibrium: The Forward and Reverse rates of a reversible chemical reaction are equal in a closed system. The concentrations are unchanging but do not have to be equal.
Do the Concentrations of Reactants and the Products change once in Equilibrium? No, the concentrations of the Products and the Reactants are constant once Equilibrium is reached.
What happens to the rate of the forward and reverse reactions when equilibrium is reached? They are constant and equal.
Do the concentrations of the reactants and the Products have to be equal when equilibrium is reached? No, they can be in different concentrations.
In what type of system does Dynamic Equilibrium occur? In a CLOSED System.
Le Chantelier's Principle If a change if affected on a System in Equilibrium, then the equilibrium will shift in order to counter act the change.
Altering the Concentration of a Product/Reactant: Will cause the equilibrium to shift to the opposite side of that substance. E.g if H2 is increased in H2 + N2 --> NH3 the Ammonia will increase.
Altering the Temperature of a System: Increasing the Temperature will shift the reaction towards the Endothermic reaction. Decreasing the Temperature will shift equilibrium to favor the exothermic reaction.
Altering the Pressure of Gases: The equilibrium will shift in the direction which has the lowest moles, i.e. Increasing pressure in 3H2 + N2 --> 2NH3 shifts the reaction to the right, as the 4 moles on the left hand side are more likely to react.
Adding a Catalyst: Does not affect the Equilibrium, but will increase the rate at which the equilibrium is reached.
Write the equation for production of Ethanol: C2H2 (Ethene) + H2O (Steam) <---> C6H5O (Ethanol). (Delta)H = -46KJmol-1
Why does the conditions that Ethanol produced under include a high temperature even though it is an Exothermic Reaction (would benefit from low temp)? Because running a reaction in low temps cause the rate of reaction, thus the speed at which equilibrium is reached, to be slow as only a few particles will be able to have the required energy to react.
Write an equation for the production of Methanol: CO (Carbon Monoxide) + 2 H2 (Hydrogen) <---> CH3OH (Methanol). (Delta) H = -91KJ Mol-1
What is one of the major uses of the alcohols Ethanol and Methanol? They are used as Motor Fuels.
What are compromise Conditions? These are Conditions that may not produce the highest yield but will produce a product quickly by reaching Dynamic Equilibrium quicker.
Define Rate of Reaction: The Change in concentration of products and reactants over time.
Created by: mjwilson1988



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