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psych chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
learning a relatively permanent chagne in an organisms behavior due to experience
associate learning learning that certa events cocur together
behaviorism the view that psychology should bean obejtive science that sudies behavior without refernecfe to mental process
clasic conditions a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. a neutral stimulus that signals an UCS begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for unconditioned stimulus
UCR in class conditioning, the unlearned, naturally corruing rsponse to the ucs such as salvation when food is in the mouth
ucs in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally, unnaturally and automatically triggers a response
cr in classical conditioning, the leanred response to a previously netural conditioned stimulus
cs in classical conditioning an origianlly netural stimulus hat after association with an unconditioned stmulus comes to trigger a conditioned repsonse
acquisition the initial stage of learning, during which a response is established and gradually strengthened. in classical conditioning, the phase in which a stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response. in operant, the strenthening of a reinforced response
extinction the diminsihing of a conditioned reponse; occurs in a classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs inoperant conditing when a repsosne is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conidtioned response
generalization the tendency, onc e arepsonse has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar response
discrimination in classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish between a codtioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an uncondtioned stimulus. in operant conditining, responding differently to stimuli that signal a behavior will be reinforced or wont
operant conditioning a type of leraning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punihsment WATSON
respondent behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; skinners term for behavior learned through classical conditioning SKINNER
operant behavior behavior that operates on the environment producing consequences
law of effect thorndikes principle that behaviors followed by faorable consequences become more likely, and that beaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely TORNDIKE
skinner box a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; with attached devices to record the aniamsl rate of bar pressing or key pecking. used in operant conditionging research
shaping an operant conditoning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal
primary reinforcer an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
secondary reinforcer a conditional reinforcer; a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
continuous reinforcement reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time, results in slower acquisition of response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule in operant conditing, a schedule of reinforcement that reinfoces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule in operant conditing a schedule of reinforcement that reinfoces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule in operant conditing, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishemnt an aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows
cognitive map a mental responsetation of the layout of ones environment. for example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they ahve learned a cognitive map of it
lantent learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incenetive to demonstrate it
overjustification effect the effect of promising a reward for doign what one already lieks to do. the person may now see the reward, rather than the intrinsic interest, as the motivationfor performing the task. SKINNER
prosocial behavior psotiive, constructive, helpful beheavior. BANDURA
observational learning learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others
model the process of observing and imitating a behvior
Created by: lilee256