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atomic structure

atomic structure ch 7 8 9

average weight of an element's atom atomic mass
negatively charged anion
positively charged cation
attraction between opposite charged ions (everything else) ionic bond
electrons shared between 2 atoms (non-metals) covalent bond
moles of a sloute divided by liters of a solution molarity
analyzes volume titration
no ions in solution non electrolyte
few ions in solution weak electrolyte
many ions in solution strong electrolyte
decreasing concentration dilution
spectrum that shows all wavelengths of light continuous spectrum-
scattering light that produces constructive and destructive interference diffraction
pattern of bright spots in dark areas diffraction pattern
where light exhibit both wave and particulate properties dual nature of light
energy that has wave behavior and travels at the speed of light electromagnetic radiation
waves per second that pass through a point in space frequency
lowest possible energy state ground state
shows only certain wavelengths line spectrum
Einsteins theory on electromagnetic radiation particles photons
where electrons are sent to the surface of a metal when light strikes it photoelectric effect
constant having the value 6.66 * 10^-34 Js Planck's constant
small energy 'packets' quantized
electron moves around the nucleus in only certain orbits quantum model
all basic waves standing wave
measures a length of a wave, from max and mins wave length
number relating to the shape of an atomic orbital angular quantum number
orbitals that have the same energy degenerate
limitation stating that the momentum and the position of a particle can be known at any given time heisenberg uncertainty principle
number that relates to the orientation of an orbital in space magnetic quantum number-
latter areas in orbitals nodes
precise wave function for an electron in an atom orbital
number that relates to size and energy of a orbital principal quantum number
sq. of a wave function that indicates the probability of finding an electron in a particular point in the orbital probability distribution
measures energy in discrete numbers quantum numbers
a set of orbitals with a given quantum number subshell
3D function that describes the properties of electrons wave function
14 elements following actinium in the pdic. tbl. actinides
just like protons, electrons are similarly added to hydrogen orbitals aufbau principle
inner electron in an atom, not valence core electrons
inner orbital electron of nucleus electron spin
either pos 1/2 or neg 1/2 electron spin quantum number
lowest energy configuration of an atom has the most unpaired electrons Hund's rule
14 elements following lanthanum in the PT lanthanides
elements in the groups 1A-8A main group elements
no 2 electrons can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers pauli exclusion principle
atroms with 1+ electrons polyelectronic atoms
several series of elements in which inner orbitals d&f are being filled transition metals
energy needed to remove highest energy electron first ionization energy
energy needed to remove second electron second ionization energy
energy reaction between a gas atom and an electron electron affinity
distance between atoms in chem compounds atomic radii
metals along the division line on PT metalloids
energy needed to break a bond bond energy
atom that loses electrons easily attracts to affinity atoms ionic bonding
when a metal reacts with a non metal ionic compound
formula used to calculate energy interaction between ions Coulomb's law
minimal distance of energy in an atom bond length
energy reqd to break a chem bond bond energy
distance between nuclei connected by a bond bond length
2.31E-19 coulomb's law
nucleus has a positive and negetive charge dipolar
atom attracts shared electrons to itself electronegetivity
opposites attract ionic bonding
metals react with non metals to form a cation and anion ionic compound
ions that have the same number of electrons isoelectronic ions
converts gas to solid lattice energy
bond where electron is not shared equally polar covalent bond
one pair of electrons is shared single bond
two pair electron double bond
three pair electrons triple bond
universal model used to interpret complex molecules localized electron model
pairs of electrons localized on an atom lone pairs
found in the spaces between lone pairs bonding pairs
surrounded by eight electrons octet rule
when one or more Lewis structure can be written for the molecule resonance
difference of valence electrons in free atoms and assigned atoms formal change
3D arrangement of atoms molecular structure
structure around atom is determined by reducing electron repulsions VSEPR model
180 degree bond angle linear structure
flat triangular molecule triginonal planar structure
109.5 degree bond angle tetrahedral structure
from 5 electrons, the one that produces minimum repulsion trigonal bipyramid
six pairs of electrons w/ 90 degree angles octahedral structure
diagrams that show bonds between atoms lewis structure
orbit of electrons around a nucleus electron shell
distribution of electrons electron configuration-
reactant that runs out first limiting reactant
mixing native orbitals to form special atomic orbitals hybridization
where electron is centered on a line in the atom sigma bond
where electron occupies space above and below a line of atoms pi bond
holds 2 electrons with opposite spins molecular orbital
lower in energy than the atomic orbitals bonding molecular orbital
higher in energy than the atomic orbital antibonding molecular energy
(bonding electrons-antibonding electrons)/2 bond order
attrcaction into inducing magnetic field paramagnetism
repulsion from inducing magnetic field diamagnetism
different atoms heternuclear
Created by: zakkimomin