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WH 1st Quarter Exam

What is prehistory? Time before writing
What was australopithecines? Where was she found? First humanlike creature. Found in southern Africa.
What’s the world’s oldest organized religion? Hinduism
How could the discovery of australopithecines, homo erectus and homo sapiens be evidence for the theory of evolution? It shows that there were different forms of “humans” from different time periods. It shows how things adapt to their environment.
What continent was the birthplace of the first homo sapiens sapiens? Africa
How did the first people get to the Americas? Land bridge that connects Russia and Africa
What and when was the Neolithic Revolution? What does Neolithic mean? When people started to farm. About 8000BCE. Neolithic means new stone.
How does increased food and security lead to cultural gains? When you don’t have to worry about food and security, you can sit back and think about art, religion, laws and other cultural things.
Where did ancient Mesopotamia begin? Between which rivers? What was the name of the first civilization there? Modern day Iraq between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. First civilization there was Sumer.
Describe the Code of Hammurabi. How was the law based on “eye for an eye”? First written code of laws. Eye for an eye meant that you get paid back for any crime you commit.
On which river and on which continent was the Ancient Egyptian civilization founded? Nile in Africa
Who was the founder of the Israelites? What was their religion? King Solomon. Jews. Judaism.
Near which river did the earliest Indian civilization begin? Indus
Who was at the top and the bottom of the Caste System? Top = priests, bottom = untouchables
Where was Katal Huyuk? Turkey. Maybe oldest city ever.
What is irrigation? Moving water to stop floods or use for crops.
How did the geography of Greece make them unique? The mountains isolated them which made them unlike other civilizations.
What two works by Homer are the most important in Greek literature? Iliad and Odyssey
Describe Sparta and Athens in one word each. (You must first read the sections on each to answer correctly) Sparta = war, Athens = democracy
What was the name of the war between Athens and Sparta? Who won? Athens won the Peloponnesian War
What does philosophy translate to? Love of wisdom
Put these philosophers in order by who taught who: Aristotle, Plato, Socrates Socrates taught Plato who taught Aristotle who taught Alexander the Great
(Brock will answer) Describe the area controlled by Alexander’s Greece. All of the eastern Mediterranean and everything it touched
In what modern country could you find the ruins of Ancient Rome? Italy
What were the names of the two groups that early Rome was divided into? What did each name mean? Patricians (rich) Plebeians (poor)
What was Pax Romana? Why did it happen? Peace in Rome
What were the Twelve Tables? First Roman code of laws
How did Rome get slaves in their empire? POWs
Jesus taught the Golden Rule, which means… Treat others like you want to be treated
(Brock will answer) Who was the first Pope of the Catholic Church? Peter
Who became the first Christian Emperor of Rome? Constantine
(Brock will answer) How could the first Christian Emperor be responsible for the number of Christians in America today? He converted most of Europe. Most Americans are of European descent. Therefore, he is responsible for the amount of Christians in the world today, especially in America.
(Brock will answer) Why did Rome split? It became too big to rule.
Describe the two Romes that were left after the split? East – Byzantine Empire – religion was Eastern Orthodox and culture was very Greek – Capital was Constantinople West – Holy Roman Empire – ruled by the Catholic Church and culture was Roman and European – Capital was Rome
Where did Muhammad fit in with Moses and Jesus? Muslims see Moses and Jesus as previous prophets picked by God. Muhammad is the last prophet in their eyes.
List the Five Pillars of Islam. Pilgrimage, faith, prayer, fasting, charity
Describe the land controlled by the Arabs at the height of the Arab Empire. Read carefully section V. on pg. 36. From Egypt to India. 2nd largest land empire only to the Mongols
Who was the great king from Mali? Where did he travel? Why did he travel there? Mansa Musa went to Mecca for a pilgrimage and brought tons of gold.
What was Genghi Khan’s life’s purpose? To rule the world.
What years were known as the middle ages? 500-1500
What does “Pope” mean? Papa (father)
Where did Charlemagne spread his empire to? Most of western Europe like France and Germany.
How did Feudalism work? Kings gave land to vassals in exchange for them protecting the land. Vassals protected the land and had serfs work the land in exchange for a place to live and a little bit of crops. Most of the crops went to the vassal.
What happened in 1215? Why is it important today? Magna Carta. Great Charter signed by King John. It said nobody, even the king is above the law.
Which two groups religions fought during The Crusades? Who ultimately won? Muslims and Christians. Christians lost many holy cities.
What was the name of the empire in Rome when the Catholic Church took over? Holy Roman Empire
What is iconoclasm? The Holy Roman Empire wanted the Byzantine Empire to stop praying to icons (pictures of saints and holy figures)
Who was the most important emperor in the Byzantine Empire? Justinian
Which city did Constantinople become? Why? Istanbul because the Muslims took it over.
What were the people who later became Russians called? Rus
What part of Europe is where most of the major cities in Russia are? Eastern
What is fealty? The word for how the serfs were bound to their land.
What led to the growth in population between 1000 and 1300 in Europe? New ways of farming
What is a money economy? Where did it first take place? Not bartering, but using currency. Started in ITL.
If the Pope controlled the Papal States, what does papal mean? Pope
Why was the Inquisition formed? To find heretics
What percentage of European people died from the Black Plague? ½
Describe what happened in the Great Schism. Two popes claimed power. One was French one was Italian. Both said the other was the anti-christ.
What time period were the middle ages? 500-1500
What does pope mean? Father
What is communion? What is the Eucharist? Bread and wine/Eucharist is where the bread and wine become the body and blood
Describe what happens when someone who is Catholic dies. Purgatory, heaven or hell.
What was the inquisition? A court to try heretics
Describe gothic architecture. Pointy, holy, stained glass, flying buttresses
Describe gothic art. 2D, holy, no perspective
What was guild? What current group is it most like? Group of workers who do the same thing/ like a union
Describe a medieval city. Stinky, crowded
How was the bubonic plague spread? Rats, boats, silk road
What were some effects of the bubonic plague? Buboes, flu, death
Who fought in the 100 Years War? Who won? Who was the girl that fought in it? ENG v FR, FR Wins with the help of Joan of Arc
What does Pope mean? father
If 100 people were living in Europe at the time, how many would have died from the plague? 50
What is another term for middle ages? Medieval, dark
What's another name for trade? barter
What is monasticism? monks and nuns
What is a sacrament? Holy ritual performed by church
What is the literal transformation of the wine and bread into body and wine called? Transubstantination
Describe the inquistion in one word. court
What was the inquisition looking for? heretics
What is heresy? going against the church
what is 500-1500CE? Middle ages
Who is the most important in the Catholic Church? Pope, then cardinals, then bishops
What happens in purgatory? sins are cleaned
List important sacraments. Communion, eucharist, mass, christening, baptism
What are common misconceptions about Catholocism? Catholics don't pray to marry or to saints, they pray through them.
What does Renaissance mean? When did it start? Rebirth. 1300s
What is antiquity? Based on the word antique. Means old and valuable. In history, it refers to Greece and Rome.
In which two ways did eastern or Muslim people lead to the renaissance? Preserved texts from antiquity, focused themselves on learning.
What region/country was where the Renaissance began? Why was it the place? Northern Italy. It was on the Mediterranean where a lot of trade and cultural interaction happened. Also, it was rich because of the Catholic Church.
Finish the quote. The Human is the center __________________________________________________. And measure of all things
Name a rich family that commissioned art in Florence. Medici
Give three aspects of Renaissance art. Realistic, 3D, about Christianity or antiquity
Name the three artists of the High Renaissance and one work by each. Leonardo – Mona Lisa, Raphael – School of Athens, Michelangelo – Sistine Chapel
Who was Gutenberg? Why is he important today? Invented the moveable type printing press. Made books common in Europe. Was done 400 years earlier in China by Bi Sheng.
Who was Machiavelli? Why is he important today? Wrote The Prince. Talked about how the job of officials is just to stay in power, not to serve the people. It is the basis for modern politics as well.
What were four reasons writers criticizes the Catholic Church? Indulgences, priests couldn't marry, Bible was in foreign language, priests were seen as holy
What was Luther’s job? Monk
What is an indulgence? Donating to the church for time out of purgatory
What did Luther do with his 95 Theses? Nailed them to his church’s door
How did the Catholic Church deal with Luther? Describe the Diet of Worms. He was excommunicated after he did not recant (take back his words).
What was the outcome of the Peace of Augsburg? The Holy Roman Emperor said princes of each part of Germany could choose if their provinces were Protestant or Catholic.
How did Luther’s actions affect people that eventually came to America? What is a protestant? He started Protestantism, which took over much of Europe. Today, in America, most Christians are Protestants.
Why did Henry VIII change the religion of all of England? What the new church’s name? He wanted a boy son and wanted to divorce his wife and try with a new girl. The Pope said the Catholic Church would not allow divorce, so Henry started a new church called the Church of England AKA Anglican Church.
Why did “Bloody” Mary hate Protestants? Why was she called “Bloody” Mary? She blamed Protestants for her and her mother being sent away by her dad, Henry VIII.
What did Elizabeth do for England? She brought at time of peace and cultural growth called the Elizabethan Era. It was when Shakespeare and other greats lived.
What four things came out of the Council of Trent? Church stopped indulgences, ensured Pope was in charge, must have faith AND good works to get to heaven, Bible in vernacular.
How were the Jews treated during the wars between the Catholics and Protestants? Both treated the Jews badly, they forced them into slums called ghettos.
Three reasons for exploration? God, glory, gold
Things from Arabs that Europeans took to explore. Cartography (mapmaking) compass, astrolabe
Why was Prince Henry important? Sponsored first sea exploration
Where was Prince Henry from? Portugal
First great exploring country? Portugal
Line of Demarcation Line that splits the world between SPN and POR
Who drew the Line of Demarcation? Pope
What treaty made the Line of Demarcation official? Treaty of Tordesillas
Cortez conquered who and where? Aztecs in Mexico
Pizzaro conquered who and where? Inca in Peru
Portugal controlled what South American country? Brazil
Columbian Exchange named after? Columbus
What was the Columbian Exchange? Exchange of goods from AME to EUR and vice versa.
Stuff from AME to EUR in Columbian Exchange? Tobacco, tomatoes, potaters, corn
Stuff from EUR to AME in Columbian Exchange? Horses, disease, slaves, guns
Where was the Dutch East India Company? Islands off India
Where was the Dutch West India Company? Caribbean
What part of the Americas did England take? VA and East Coast/Mass
What part of the Americas did France take? Mississippi and Canada
What part of the Americas did Spain take? South America, MEX, FLA
What part of the Americas did Netherlands take? New York
Crop that brought slaves to US? Tobacco
First leg of triangle trade? Manufactured goods to AFR from EUR (guns)
Second leg of triangle trade? Slaves from AFR to AME
Second leg of triangle trade called? Middle Passage
Third leg of triangle trade? AME sending raw materials to EUR
Most African slaves were … POWs Prisoners of war
Religion that spread from northern Africa to southern Africa? Christianity
Island nation in Pacific that becomes Muslim? Indonesia
What people in that island nation that became Muslim caused the change? Traders
What were the Moluccas? Spice Islands
Why did Portugal settle the Moluccas? Spices
Why didn't Europe have a big impact on the mainland? Mainland had stronger government and bigger population than the islands
Two main religions on islands in Southeast Asia? Islam and Catholicism
Main religion on mainland in Southeast Asia? Buddhism
Created by: rockcastle