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Chapter 8 Kinetics

Collision Theory, Maxwell-Boltzmann and Catalysts.

Collision Theory: The idea that particles must have a certain amount of energy in order to collide with enough force to cause a chemical reaction (break bonds) to occur, they must also be orientated towards each other correctly.
Most collisions between molecules...: Cause no reaction at all as the particles do not have enough energy to cause the reaction.
Factors that affect the rate of reaction: Temperature, Concentration of reactants, Pressure (Gases), Surface Area (Solid), Using a Catalyst.
How does Temperature affect rate of reaction: Temperature is average energy of particles, as this energy increases the particles collide more frequently with more energy, making them more likely to react.
How does Concentration Affect rate of reaction: Increasing the concentration of the reactants will increase the rate reaction as more particles are likely to collide with enough energy as there are more of them. Rate will drop the longer reaction continues.
How does pressure affect the rate of Gas reaction: Increases the molecules in a given volume by compressing them together, this makes collisions more frequent.
How does Surface Area affect rate of reaction: As total surface area increases, so does the amount of area available to collide, so increasing total surface area increases the rate of reaction.
How does a Catalyst affect rate of reaction: A catalyst is a substance that remains unchanged in a reaction and changes the activation energy of a reaction by providing the reactants with a different route to reach the transition state (can either lower or increase it.)
Activation Energy, E a: The Minimum energy required for a particle to react; the difference in Enthalpy between the reactants and the transition state.
On an Enthalpy Diagram, what is the top of the curve called? The transition state / Activated Complex. Particles are in their most basic form and some bonds are forming and some are breaking.
What is the name given to the difference in enthalpy between the Reactants and the Transition State? Activation Energy.
Catalysts: Catalysts are substance that alter a Chemical reaction while remaining unchanged in the process. They alter Activation Energies by providing alternate routes to the Transition State.
Created by: mjwilson1988



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