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Physics Unit 5

A particles carry positive charges inside the helium atom's nucleus; they are __________. protons
B particles inside the helium atom's nucleus have no charge; they are _________. neutrons
C particles rotate around the helium atom's nucleus in orbitals; they are _________. electrons
Electrons in orbitals around the helium atom's nucleus have a _________ charge. negative
The two A particles __________ each other because of their charges. repel
Like charges _________. repel
The charge of an A particle + the charge of a C particle = _______. 0
The net charge of a helium atom equals _______. 0
If an atom grabbed another atom's electrons, both atoms would become _________. ions
The __________-the SI unit of electrical force-is used to express a particle's charge. Coulomb
You rub a piece of wool upon your skin and your skin becomes negatively charged because it gained ________ from the wool. electrons
A layer of electrons gathers on the surface of a piece of mica after it is rubbed with copper. The buildup of electrons is called ____________. static electricity
An atom donates an electron to another atom in a closed system; the __________ is zero (0). net charge
Electrons flow easily through a substance; the substance is a(n) ________. conductor
A substance that resists the movement of electrons through it is a(n) __________. insulator
A positively charged rod moved near a metal piece charges the metal piece through __________. induction
certain liquids; most metals conductor
A negatively charged rod ___________ a metal piece directly, causing the metal piece to accept a charge. contacts
wood insulator
ground wire conductor
The positive or negative state in which a body reacts to an electric, magnetic, or other field is its ________. polarity
To measure an object's polarity, you could use a(n) __________. electroscope
An object touches an electroscope's contact point. The gold leaves fan away from each other, telling you the object _________. had a charge
A lightning rod prevents damage to homes if lightning strikes because the rod is connected to a(n) ________ wire that conducts the charges into the earth. ground
An instrument that detects the presence of an electric charge is a(n) ___________. electroscope
The amount of energy that acts upon a charge at a particular point in an electric field is the _____________. electrical potential energy (E.P.E.)
The amount of energy acting upon a charge at a particular point in an electrical field is measured in ________. joules
The E.P.E. at this particular point in the electric field divided by the charge at this point with an equation like V=PE(electric)/q applies to ____________. electric potential
Electric potential is measured in _________. volts
The PE(electric) in the formula is measured in ________, while the q in the formula is measured in _________. joules;coulombs
Since the electric potential at point B is higher than the electric potential at point D, the electrical system has a _________. potential difference
Potential difference is measured in __________. volts
Because a potential difference exists between points B and D, _________ will flow as shown when charges flow from B to D because the point at B has higher electric potential than the point at D. electricity
There is a wall in front of an object and Force A is blocked by the wall but Force B goes through the wall. The wall would be _________ the object from Force A. shielding
There is a wall in front of an object and Force A is blocked by the wall but Force B goes through the wall. Force A could be a(n) __________. electrical field
Force A is an electrical field. It could be measured in the SI units of ________. newtons
Force A is an electrical field so it is based upon ________. charge
There is a wall in front of an object and Force A is blocked by the wall but Force B goes through the wall. Force A is much, much ________ Force B. greater than
Force A is an electrical field whereas Force B is a gravitational field. Force A can be both attractive and ______, while Force B can only be attractive. repulsive
Force A is an electrical field whereas Force B is a gravitational field. Both forces have __________ relationships. reciprocal
A ________ collects charges in an electric field. capacitor
In a capacitor, there are two surrounding layers. The top layer is a _______ that collects negative charges in an electric field and the bottom layer is also a _________ but it collects positive charges in an electric field. conductive material
There is an inner layer of a capacitor that is surrounded by conductive material called a _________. dielectric
The middle layer of a capacitor is a(n) __________. insulator
Capacitors are rated according to _______, the SI unit that is a measurement of the ability to store a charge. farads
Charges move at a certain rate through a conductor; that rate is defined as _________. current
A point in an electrical circuit has 17 coulombs pass it in one second or 17 _______ of current flow. amps
The speed at which electric ________ move through a conductor is the current. charges
To control a current by blocking the flow of charges, ___________ are installed. resistors
Ohm's law is written as __________. I=V/R
If you want a material that an electric current can run through, you insert a(n) _________. conductor
A material that resists an electric current from passing through it is a(n) ________. insulator
Certain _________ are better conductors than others. metals
A conductor has low _________, while an insulator has high _________. resistance
A circuit's __________ is affected by the material type, the conducting wire's width and length, the temperature of materials in the circuit, plus components that are added to the circuit. resistance
An electrical circuit in which electrons run from a negative terminal of a battery to a positive one is a(n) ___________. direct current
When the electric potential changes back and forth in a circuit, a(n) _________ exists. alternating current
Four electrical components in a(n) ____________ possess four different complete circuits. parallel circuit
Moving electric charges create a(n) ______________. magnetic field
One light bulb in a set of Christmas lights goes out and the entire set quits working because the bulbs are in a(n) _____________. series circuit
Materials respond to a magnetic field via a property called ______________. magnetism
If you flip a switch ON in an electric train's circuit, the circuit is _________ and therefore, electric charges run through the circuit and the train runs. closed
Flipping a switch to OFF in an electric train's circuit renders the circuit _______; as a result, no electric charges run through the circuit and the train stops. open
The amount of power delivered by a circuit carrying one ampere of current with a one-volt difference in one second is ____________. electric power
A living room has circuit wiring that handles 20 amperes of current; to prevent an overload, all of the electrical items in the room cannot draw more than a total of _________. 20 amps
Just as with electric charges, opposites in magnets, such as the north and south poles, _______ each other. attract
SInce a magnet has a north pole and a south pole, it is _________. dipolar
One pole's attraction for another on a magnet creates __________ between the poles. lines of force
If too many appliances are attached to one electric circuit you risk overloading the circuit due to _____________. excess voltage
A protective device called a ________ has a conductor that burns through or clicks off if a circuit is overloaded. fuse
An electrical circuit is opened when another protective device called a ________ senses an overloaded circuit. circuit breaker
Metals may be magnetized because of the presence of _____________ or small zones of magnetism. magnetic domains
The amount of electrical resistance between two points is measured by an __________. ohm
The charge in coulombs a capacitor accepts for potential to change 1 volt is measured by a ___________. farad
The amount of power; 1 J/s is measured by _________. watts
The amount of electric charge carried by a one-amp current in one second is measured by a __________. coulomb
The amount of current or 1 C/s is measured in _____________. amperes
The amount of electric potential; 1 J/C is measured in _____________. volts
One atom has an excess of electrons while another has an excess of protons; both atoms are ___________. ions
Inside an atom's nucleus are particles with neutral charges; those particles are __________. neutrons
If an atom's orbit are particles with negative charges; those particles are ___________. electrons
A negatively charged object touches another object, changing its charge through __________. direct contact
The buildup of electrons on an object is ____________. static electricity
An electron possesses a negative charge that can be expressed in ____________ or the SI units for electrical charge. coulombs
More electrons are on a sphere's left side; therefore, the sphere has ___________, or a positive or negative state that reacts to an electric field. polarity
One mass is attracted to another due to ____________. gravitational force
One charge is attracted to another due to _____________. electrical force
Gravitational force can only result in __________. attraction
The greater the _________ between two charges or two masses, the lower the electrical and gravitational force. distance
Electrical and gravitational forces have __________ relationships. inverse-square
The gravitational force between two charged objects is _________ than the electrical force between them. much less
The electrical force between two charged objects is _________ than the gravitational force between them. much greater
The formula F(electric)=kc(q1q2/r2) is for _____________. Coulomb's law
In a __________, one component has a separate circuit from another component. parallel circuit
A property of materials responsible for their attraction or repulsion to a magnetic field caused by moving charges is __________. magnetism
Magnetism's strength is related to the __________ of the distance between two magnetized objects. inverse-square
Metals may become magnetized more easily than other materials because they have more _________ spinning one way than the other way. electrons
Created by: jhincks
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