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first and second exam of freshman chem

Aufban Principle as you add protons to the nucleus as you go through the periodic table, you add electrons to atomic orbitals
which elements have weird e- configurations? what's different about them? Cr and Cu (as well as first row of transition metals other than cobalt) - fill up d shell to 5 or 10 instead of filling up 4s shell
unpaired e- = paramagnetic
all paired e- = diamagnetic
column 1 of periodic table Alkali Metals
Column 2 of periodic table Alkaline earth metals
Column 17 of periodic table halogens
Column 18 of periodic table noble gases
representative elements "main group", not transition metals
e- configuration for representative cations remove e- from highest n shell
e- configuration for representative anions add e- to highest partially filled n shell
isoelectronic have same number of e-
e- configurations for transition metals remove the 4s e- first, and then the 3d
Effective Nuclear Charge = atomic size and the ability to lose e- (ionization)
Effective nuclear charge increases.... Left to right on a periodic table
ionic radius = radius of cation/anion
for anions, what's bigger? original or anion? anion (added electron)
for cations, what's bigger? original or cation? original (lost electron)
ionization energy = energy needed to remove e- from a gaseous atom/ion. measures how tightly e- are held
the ____ the ionization energy, the harder it is to remove e- bigger
what has a higher ionization energy, metals or nonmetals? nonmetals
electronegativity increases... bottom to top and left to right on periodic table
the more ___ electron affinity, the more likely it is to gain an e- positive
a stable anion's electron affinity is large and positive
halogens electron affinity are high and positive
atoms achieve maximum stability when.... isoelectronic w/ a noble gas
covalent bonds = sharing e- between 2 atoms follows octet rule
electronegativity = unequal sharing of e-
formal charge is calculated as... the difference between # of valence e- in atom, and # of e- atom has in lewis structure.
formal charge should ideally be as equal as possible to zero if atom is neutral, and equal to the charge if atom has one.
exceptions to the octet rule incomplete octet, odd number of e-, expanded octet
which elements can have an incomplete octet? Be and B
what kind of combinations of elements have an odd number of e-? radicals
which elements can have expanded octets? 3rd row and beyond
electronegativity (in a bond) is? the ability of an atom to pull e- towards itself in a covalent bond
number of protons in an atom = atomic number
number of neutrons in an atom = mass number - number of protons
number of electrons in an (neutral) atom = same as number of protons
number of electrons in a charged atom = number of protons +/- charge
principal quantum number = (n) describes the size of the orbital
angular quantum number = (l) describes the shape of the orbital
Orbitals have shapes that are best described as spherical have an l of 0
Orbitals have shapes that are best described as polar have an l of 1
Orbitals have shapes that are best described as cloverleaf have an l of 2
magnetic quantum number = (ml) describes the orientation in space of a particular orbital.
for the 5f subshell, the n = 5
for a 3d subshell, the n = 3
possible values of l 0 to n-1
l value for the s orbital 0
l value for the p orbital 1
l value for the d orbital 2
l value for the f orbital 3
possible values for ml -l to +l
ionic radius increases right to left top to bottom
atomic radius increases right to left top to bottom
electron affinity increases left to right bottom to top
ionization energy increases left to right bottom to top
Created by: 1001938282



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